多语种党政文献简写本及专家解读文库

中英对照:全面建成小康社会 开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程

2021-01-04多语种党政文献简写本及专家解读文库

全面建成小康社会 开启全面建设

社会主义现代化国家新征程

——《习近平谈治国理政》第三卷

“脱贫攻坚篇”学习思考

Build a Moderately Prosperous Society in All Respects and Embark on a New Journey Toward Fully Building a Modern Socialist Country

–Thoughts on the Study of "Poverty Alleviation", Xi Jinping: The Governance of China (Volume III)

《习近平谈治国理政》第三卷收入了习近平在2017年10月18日至2020年1月13日期间的报告、讲话、谈话、演讲、批示、指示、贺信等92篇,分为19个专题。这部著作是中共十九大以来习近平领导中国人民攻坚克难、砥砺前行的最新成果,是中国共产党不忘初心、牢记使命,团结带领人民创造更加幸福美好生活的最新指南,是为世界谋大同、推动构建人类命运共同体的最新方案。本文聚焦《习近平谈治国理政》第三卷的第五篇专题,即“决胜全面建成小康社会,决战脱贫攻坚”,该专题选编了4篇重要论述,明确指出决战脱贫攻坚对于决胜全面建成小康社会的重大意义,全面阐述了中国脱贫攻坚战的主要做法和重大成就,系统总结了在脱贫攻坚伟大实践中积累的宝贵经验。自中共中央在改革开放之初提出小康社会的战略构想以来,几代人一以贯之、接续奋斗,奋斗目标一步步变为现实。中共十八大报告首次明确提出“全面建成小康社会”,中共十九大更是发出决胜全面建成小康社会的动员令,要求在“两个一百年”奋斗目标的历史交汇期,既全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标,又乘势而上开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程,向第二个百年奋斗目标进军。

The third volume of Xi Jinping: The Governance of China collects 92 articles, including speeches, conversations, instructions and letters of Xi Jinping between October 18, 2017 and January 13, 2020, which are divided into 19 topics. This work is the latest achievement of Xi Jinping in leading the Chinese people to overcome difficulties and work hard to press ahead since the 19th CPC National Congress, and it is the latest guide for the CPC to remain true to its original aspiration and founding mission, unite and lead the people to create a happier and better life. It is the latest plan to seek great harmony for the world and promote the building of a community with a shared future for mankind. This article focuses on the fifth topic of the third volume of Xi Jinping: The Governance of China, that is, "Secure a Decisive Victory in Building a Moderately Prosperous Society in All Respects and Winning the Battle against Poverty " This topic has compiled four important discourses, which clearly points out the great significance of securing a decisive victory in poverty alleviation for the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, expounds the main practices and major achievements of China's efforts to eradicate  poverty, and systematically sums up the valuable experience accumulated in the practice of poverty alleviation. Since the CPC Central Committee put forward the strategic concept of "Xiaokang"(moderately prosperous and well-off) at the beginning of reform and opening up, several generations have struggled one after another, making the goal a reality step by step. The report of the 18th CPC National Congress clearly put forward "building a moderately prosperous society in all respects" for the first time, and the 19th CPC National Congress issued a mobilization order for it, requiring that during the historical confluence period of the "Two Centenary" Goals, we should not only build a moderately prosperous society in all respects way and achieve the first centenary goal, but also take advantage of the opportunity to embark on a new journey toward building a modern socialist country in all respects and march toward the second centenary goal. 

到2020年全面建成小康社会,是以习近平同志为核心的党中央向人民、向历史作出的庄严承诺。中国全面建成小康社会,不仅加快全球减贫进程,为全球减贫事业作出重大贡献,也为其他发展中国家减贫树立标杆,坚定了全世界消除贫困的信心。

Building a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020 is a solemn commitment to the people and to history made by the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core. Building a moderately prosperous society in all respects in China has not only accelerated the global poverty reduction process and made significant contributions to the global poverty reduction cause, but also set a benchmark for poverty reduction in other developing countries and strengthened the world's confidence in poverty eradication.

一、以小见大:百合之乡的脱贫之路

习近平在多种场合、多次强调“小康不小康,关键看老乡”,他眼中的“小康”,不仅看经济总量,还看老百姓的生活质量,不仅看平均数,而且看大多数,而中国脱贫的大多数,显然是广大的农业人口。

甘肃临洮,黄土高原上的国家级贫困县。这里常年干旱少雨,黄沙横行,道路也蜿蜒曲折。受地形所限,人们无法使用机械作业,只能在山上开垦梯田,保留着“脸朝黄土背朝天”这一最传统的农耕方式,许多农民一度在贫困线上苦苦挣扎。申韦娟就是其中之一,她是临洮县上营乡包家山村一名普通农村妇女,丈夫前些年罹患严重肝病,虽然命保住了,但却几乎丧失了劳动力,除洗衣做饭等简单家务外不能干任何重活,每年医药费即便医保报销后也需花费四五万元,她上有70多岁的老父亲体弱多病,下有读职高的大女儿和上初中的小儿子,全家30亩地只能她一个人照顾,每天凌晨四点就要开始劳作,所有重担都压在她一个人身上。面对如此情势,难免不令人感到绝望。

临洮县的百合一直是特色农产品,品相饱满,生食甘甜,但却苦于缺乏销路,卖不上价钱。当地有很多像申韦娟一样未脱贫或者刚脱贫的农户种植百合,但没有形成产业规模。为了帮助村民战胜贫困,从省、市,到县、乡、村,大大小小各级干部都想办法,在当地引入精准扶贫模式,协调银行提供低成本贷款,帮助扩大种植面积,发动赋闲在家的贫困户参与生产,预购种植订单,由龙头企业回购贫困户种植百合,提前锁定收购价,调动贫困户生产积极性。同时,倡议干部群众采购扶贫农产品,利用网络直播,线上线下都加强推广,让扶贫农产品人人皆知;加大“扶智”力度,举办免费培训班让农户学习新型种植技术、农产品品牌建设以及互联网销售模式;加强有针对性的帮扶,村里成立了百合种植合作社,对申韦娟这样家庭更加困难的,提供更多无息贷款,提供一对一技术指导,给双份的肥料。

在各方持续不断的努力下,申韦娟的百合长势喜人,全家都感觉更有干劲。但到了收获的季节,一开始却一直没有收购商上门,如果天冷上冻,就无法采挖百合,一年的辛苦就会白费。在合作社理事长的不断协调下,百合终于卖上了满意的价钱,为申韦娟一家带来七万九千二百元收入,还欠债、孩子上学、丈夫治病、日常开销,终于有了着落,申韦娟坚定了来年继续种植百合的信心。不久,包家山村又建起了冷库,百合保鲜存储的后顾之忧也解决了,全村人都有了富起来的希望。

2020年3月,临洮县脱贫摘帽。

1. To See the Whole Through a Small Part: the Way out of Poverty in the Land of Lilies

Xi Jinping on many occasions has repeatedly stressed that "whether it is a well-off society or not, it depends on the fellow villagers." In his opinion, to judge whether a society is "prosperous and well-off" or not, we should look not only at the total economic output, but also at the quality of life of the common people; not only at the average, but also at the majority. In China the majority of population is obviously the vast agricultural population. 

Lintao, Gansu Province, is a state-level poverty-stricken county on the Loess Plateau. It is dry and short of rain all the year round, with yellow sand rampant and the road winding. Limited by the terrain, people are unable to deploy farming machinery, but to retain the most traditional farming method, bending all day long on terraced fields. Many farmers once struggled below the poverty line, and Shen Weijuan is one of them. She is an ordinary rural woman in Baojiashan Village, Shangying Township, Lintao County. Her husband suffered from serious liver disease a few years ago. Although his life was saved, he almost lost all his labor capability. Apart from simple housework such as washing and cooking, he could not do any heavy work. Even after medical insurance reimbursement, she spends 40,000 to 50,000 yuan on her husband's medical treatment. Besides, her frail and sickly father is in his 70s, her eldest daughter studying in vocational high school and her youngest son in junior high school. Being the only one to take care of the 30 mu of farm land in the family, she starts to work at four o'clock every morning, and all the burdens are on her shoulder. In the face of such a situation, it is inevitable for her to feel desperate.

Plump and sweet, the lilies in Lintao County have always been a kind of special agricultural products, but they suffer from lack of market access and cannot sell at a good price. Shen Weijuan and many local farmers struggling on the poverty line grow lilies in the country, but their production has not reached an industrial scale. In order to help villagers, cadres at all levels, high rank or low, from provinces and cities to counties, townships, and villages, figure out ways to alleviate poverty. They introduced targeted poverty alleviation models, coordinated banks to provide low-interest loans, and helped expand the planting scope by mobilizing the unemployed impoverished households to participate in the production. They coordinated leading enterprises to place orders for upcoming products at a preset price so as to boost the farmers’ morale. At the same time, they encouraged cadres and the common people to purchase these agricultural products, making use of live broadcast on the Internet, and strengthening the promotion both online and offline, so as to make the products known to everyone. They also held free training courses for farmers to learn about new planting techniques, brand building of agricultural products and methods of Internet sales. Meanwhile, they strengthened targeted assistance, with lily planting cooperatives in the village providing more interest-free loans, one-to-one technical guidance and a double portion of fertilizer for families like Shen Weijuan. 

With sustained efforts of all parties, Shen Weijuan's lilies were growing gratifyingly, and the whole family felt more energetic. However, when it came to the harvest season, no one came to buy. If the situation had continued and the lily had remained in the gradually freezing fields, the whole year’s labors would have been lost in vain. Under the continuous coordination of the director of the cooperative, the lilies finally sold at a satisfactory price, bringing an income of 79,200 yuan for Shen Weijuan's family. She finally got the money to pay her debts, the children's school fee, her husband's medical treatment, and their daily expenses. This strengthened Shen Weijuan's confidence to continue to plant lilies in the coming year. What's more, cold storage soon was built in Baojiashan Village. With the worry about storage gone, all the villagers had the hope of getting rich. 

In March 2020, Lintao County was finally removed from the poverty list.

二、设定明确目标:消除绝对贫困

2019年,中国各省份贫困发生率普遍下降至2.2%及以下,但贫困发生率在1%-2.2%的省份还有7个,包括广西、贵州、云南、西藏、甘肃、青海、新疆;贫困发生率在0.5%-1%的省份也有7个,包括山西、吉林、河南、湖南、四川、陕西、宁夏。这些地区,都是脱贫攻坚的重点、难点。

中国深度贫困地区的脱贫任务依然艰巨。习近平2019年4月在解决“两不愁三保障”突出问题座谈会上的讲话中指出,“三区三州”仍有172万建档立卡贫困人口,占全国现有贫困人口的12.5%,贫困发生率8.2%。全国还有98个县贫困发生率在10%以上,建档立卡贫困人口359.6万人,占全国的26%,贫困发生率比全国高出13.3个百分点。所谓“三区三州”,“三区”是指西藏自治区和青海、四川、甘肃、云南四省藏区及南疆的和田地区、阿克苏地区、喀什地区、克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州四地区;“三州”是指四川凉山州、云南怒江州、甘肃临夏州。这些地区,是脱贫攻坚的难中之难、坚中之坚。

习近平2018年2月12日在打好精准脱贫攻坚战座谈会上的讲话中指出,脱贫攻坚的目标就是要做到“两个确保”:确保现行标准下的农村贫困人口全部脱贫,消除绝对贫困;确保贫困县全部摘帽,解决区域性整体贫困。何为扶贫标准?就是稳定实现贫困人口“两不愁三保障”,即不愁吃、不愁穿,义务教育、基本医疗、住房安全有保障;以及稳定实现贫困地区基本公共服务领域主要指标接近全国平均水平。

临洮县只是中国千千万万个实现脱贫致富的县城之一,像申韦娟一样的脱贫故事正在中国大地处处上演。按照现行贫困标准衡量,中国贫困人口从2012年年底的9899万人减少到2019年年底的551万人,连续7年减贫1000万人以上,贫困发生率由10.2%降至0.6%,区域性整体贫困基本得到解决,贫困地区基本生产生活条件也明显改善。

2. Set a Clear Goal: to Eradicate Absolute Poverty

In 2019, the incidence of poverty in all provinces in China has generally dropped to 2.2% or less, but there are seven provinces with an incidence of poverty of 1%-2.2%, including Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Gansu, Qinghai and Xinjiang, and there are also seven provinces with an incidence of poverty of 0.5%-1%, including Shanxi, Jilin, Henan, Hunan, Sichuan, Shaanxi and Ningxia. These 14 regions are the key areas in the nation’s final bid to eradicate poverty. 

The task of poverty alleviation in the above-mentioned regions is still arduous. In his speech at the forum on solving the protruding problems of "two no worries and three guarantees" in April 2019, Xi Jinping pointed out that there are still 1.72 million impoverished people in the "three regions and three prefectures", accounting for 12.5% of the existing poor population in the country, and the incidence of poverty there is 8.2%. In 98 counties across the country, the incidence of poverty is more than 10%, with 3.596 million people living in poverty, accounting for 26% of the country's total, and the incidence of poverty is 13.3% higher than that of the whole country. For the so-called "three regions and three prefectures", "three regions" refer to the Tibet Autonomous Region; the Tibetan regions of Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu and Yunnan provinces; and the southern Xinjiang region including the Hotan, Aksu, Kashgar and Kizilsu Kirgiz prefectures. The "three prefectures" refer to Liangshan Prefecture in Sichuan, Nujiang Prefecture in Yunnan, and Linxia Prefecture in Gansu Province. They are the toughest part in the tough battle against poverty.

In his speech at the forum on fighting for targeted poverty alleviation on February 12, 2018, Xi Jinping pointed out that the goal of poverty alleviation is to achieve the "two ensures": to ensure that all the rural poor under the current standards are lifted out of poverty and that absolute poverty is eliminated; to ensure that all poverty-stricken counties are removed from the poverty list and the problem of overall regional poverty is solved. What is the standard of poverty alleviation? It is to steadily realize the "two no worries and three guarantees" for the poor population. That is, people don’t worry about food and clothing and have their access to compulsory education, basic medical services and safe housing guaranteed. Generally speaking, under continuous efforts, the main indicators in the field of basic public services in poverty-stricken areas should be close to the national average.

Lintao County is only one of the tens of thousands of counties in China to shake off poverty and become rich. The story of getting rid of poverty like Shen Weijuan is being staged everywhere in China. According to the current poverty standards, the number of people living in poverty in China has decreased from 98.99 million at the end of 2012 to 5.51 million at the end of 2019. For seven consecutive years, the number of people living in poverty has been reduced by more than 10 million, and the incidence of poverty has dropped from 10.2% to 0.6%. The problem of overall regional poverty has been basically solved, and the basic production and living conditions in poverty-stricken areas have also been significantly improved.

三、决胜脱贫攻坚:掌握科学方法

习近平在打好精准脱贫攻坚战座谈会上的讲话中指出,在脱贫攻坚的伟大实践中,我们积累了许多宝贵经验,主要包括:一是坚持中国共产党的领导,强化组织保证;二是坚持精准方略,提高脱贫实效;三是坚持加大投入,强化资金支持;四是坚持社会动员,凝聚各方力量;五是坚持从严要求,促进真抓实干;六是坚持群众主体,激发内生动力。这些是脱贫攻坚的宝贵经验,必须长期坚持并不断完善和发展。

习近平2015年11月在中央扶贫开发工作会议上明确提出,脱贫攻坚要重点解决“扶持谁”、“谁来扶”、“怎么扶”、“如何退”4个问题。

“扶持谁”——帮助真正有需要的人。确保把真正的贫困人口弄清楚,把贫困人口、贫困程度、致贫原因等搞清楚,对每个贫困户建档立卡。

“谁来扶”——党员干部带头示范。越是进行脱贫攻坚战,越是要加强和改善党的领导。全国累计选派300多万县级以上机关、国有企事业单位干部参加驻村帮扶,目前在岗的村第一书记有20多万人、驻村干部70万人,还有近200万乡镇扶贫干部和数百万村干部。

“怎么扶”——脱贫攻坚要见成效。按照贫困地区和贫困人口的具体情况,实施“五个一批”工程,即发展生产脱贫一批、易地搬迁脱贫一批、生态补偿脱贫一批、发展教育脱贫一批、社会保障兜底一批。中国贫困人口总基数大,不同地区有不同特点,要缺什么就补什么,能干什么就干什么,扶到点上扶到根上。

“如何退”——严格按照程序摘帽。设定时间表、留出缓冲期、实行严格评估、实行逐户销号,明确贫困县、贫困村、贫困人口退出标准和程序,指导各地科学合理制定脱贫滚动规划和年度计划,对拟退出的贫困县组织第三方进行严格评估。同样要防止返贫和继续攻坚,已经摘帽的继续巩固,摘帽后不摘责任、不摘政策、不摘帮扶、不摘监管,建立健全稳定脱贫长效机制,增强“造血”功能,防止返贫。

决胜脱贫攻坚,关键是精准。扶贫对象精准、项目安排精准、资金使用精准、措施到户精准、因村派人精准、脱贫成效精准。坚持因人因地施策,因贫困原因施策,因贫困类型施策,区别不同情况,做到对症下药、精准滴灌、靶向治疗,不搞大水漫灌、走马观花、大而化之。

3. Secure a Decisive Victory in Eradicating Poverty: Mastering Scientific Methods

In his speech at the forum on fighting for targeted poverty alleviation, Xi Jinping pointed out that in the great practice of getting rid of poverty, we have accumulated a lot of valuable experience, mainly including: first, adhere to the leadership of the Communist Party of China and strengthen organizational guarantee; second, adhere to targeted strategies to improve the effectiveness of poverty alleviation; third, persist in increasing investment and strengthen financial support; fourth, adhere to social mobilization and unite the efforts of all parties; fifth, adhere to strict requirements and promote practical work; sixth, adhere to the main body of the masses and stimulate endogenous power. These are valuable experiences in eradicating poverty and must be adhered to in the long term and constantly improved and developed. 

Xi Jinping made it clear at the Central Committee's Working Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development in November 2015 that we should focus on solving the four problems of "whom to help", "who will help", "how to help" and "how to delist".

"Whom to help"—help those who are really in need. Make sure that we know who are the real impoverished people, the number, the degree of poverty, the causes of poverty, and so on, and set up a file card for each poor household. 

"Who will help"—party members and cadres take the lead and set a good example. The more we fight against poverty, the more we need to strengthen and improve the leadership of the Party. A total of more than 3 million cadres from organs at and above the county level and state-owned enterprises and institutions have been selected throughout the country to station in village and provide assistance. At present, there are more than 200,000 party first secretaries and 700,000 cadres stationed in the village, as well as nearly 2 million poverty alleviation cadres in towns and millions of village cadres.

"How to help"— efforts for poverty eradication must yield results. According to the specific conditions of poverty-stricken areas and poverty-stricken people, we will implement "five-batch" projects, that is, to get rid of poverty by boosting local industrial development, by relocation, by ecological compensation, by education and training, and by social security. The total number of poor people in China is large, and different regions have different characteristics. We can make up for what they need, do whatever we can, and give them fundamental and timely support. 

"How to delist"—remove the names from the poverty alleviation list according to strict procedures. We should clarify the standards and procedures for counties, villages and people to be removed from the poverty alleviation list; we should set a timetable and a buffer period, carry out strict evaluation, and remove the names of household from the list one by one. We should guide all localities to scientifically and rationally formulate rolling plans and annual plans for poverty alleviation, to arrange strict evaluation by third parties before removing the relevant counties from the poverty alleviation list. Meanwhile, it is necessary to prevent returning to poverty. We should continue to tackle the key problems, consolidate our gains, and shoulder our responsibilities. We should continue to implement our policies, assistance and supervision, establishing and improving a long-term mechanism for stable poverty alleviation, enhancing their "hematopoiesis" function, and preventing them from returning to poverty.

Targeted strategies are the key to winning the battle against poverty. The targets of poverty alleviation should be specific; the arrangement of projects, the use of funds, the measures for each household, the people sent to the village to help, and the results of poverty alleviation should all be targeted and specific. We should persist in implementing different strategies based on different people and places, different causes of poverty and different poverty types, distinguishing different situations so as to prescribe the right remedy to each case, and carry out targeted treatment.

四、建成小康社会:“全面”是关键

全面建成小康社会是一个实实在在的目标。习近平指出,“小康”这个概念出自《礼记·礼运》,是中华民族自古以来追求的理想社会状态,使用“小康”这个概念来确立中国的发展目标,既符合中国发展实际,也容易得到最广大人民的理解和支持。

小康社会,更重要的也是更难做到的是“全面”。在中共十八届五中全会第二次全体会议上,习近平强调,“小康”讲的是发展水平,“全面”讲的是发展的平衡性、协调性、可持续性,如果到2020年我们在总量和速度上完成了目标,但发展不平衡、不协调、不可持续问题更加严重,短板更加突出,就算不上真正实现了目标,即使最后宣布实现了,也无法得到人民群众和国际社会认可。

“全面小康”,覆盖的领域要全面,是五位一体全面进步。经济要更加发展、民主要更加健全、科教要更加进步、文化要更加繁荣、社会要更加和谐、人民生活要更加殷实。坚持以经济建设为中心的同时,全面推进经济、政治、文化、社会、生态文明建设,促进现代化建设各个环节、各个方面协调发展。

“全面小康”,覆盖的人口要全面,是惠及全体人民的小康。全面建成小康社会突出短板主要在民生领域,要坚守底线、突出重点、完善制度、引导预期,注重机会公平,保障基本民生。脱贫最突出短板在农村,农村贫困人口脱贫,是全面建成小康社会的基本标志。另外针对特定人群的特定困难,要帮他们解决实际问题,比如,对城镇低保人口要保障基本生活,对老年人要增强养老、医疗,对农民工要提供基本公共服务,对大学毕业生要让他们有地方住,对城镇登记失业人员要让他们有一技之长,等等。

“全面小康”,覆盖的区域要全面,是城乡区域共同的小康。缩小城乡区域发展差距是全面建成小康社会的重要任务,不仅是缩小国内生产总值总量和增长速度差距,更需要缩小居民收入水平、基础设施通达水平、基本公共服务均等化水平、人民生活水平等方面的差距。缩小差距不能脱离区域实际,必须全面考量,因为不同区域承担主体功能不同,比如青海和西藏,是重点生态功能区,扶贫就不能盲目搞开发。中共中央提出了京津冀协同发展、粤港澳大湾区建设、长三角一体化发展,实施乡村振兴战略等,正是着眼全面小康要全国一盘棋。

4. To Build a Moderately Prosperous Society: "All Respects" is the Key

Building a moderately prosperous society in all respects is a real goal. Xi Jinping pointed out that the concept of "Xiaokang"(moderately prosperous and well-off) comes from the "Liji Liyun"(The Book of Rites) and is an ideal social state pursued by the Chinese people since ancient times. The use of the concept of "Xiaokang" to establish China's development goals is not only in line with China's development reality, but also easy to be understood and supported by the overwhelming majority of the people. 

In building a moderately prosperous society, the more important and more difficult thing is to be in "all respects". At the second session of the fifth plenum of the 18th CPC Central Committee, Xi Jinping stressed that "moderately prosperous" is about the level of development, and "all respects" is about the balance, coordination and sustainability of development. If we achieve our goals in terms of total quantity and speed by 2020, but the problems of unbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable development are more serious, and the shortcomings are more prominent, the goals are not really achieved. Even if it is finally announced that they have been achieved, it cannot be recognized by the people and the international community.

A "moderately prosperous society in all respects" should cover all areas and make progress in 5 aspects: economy should be more developed; democracy should be sounder; science and education should be more advanced and culture should be diversified and more prosperous; society should be more harmonious; and people's lives should be more affluent. While persisting in taking economic development as the central task, we should comprehensively promote the building of economic, political, cultural, social and ecological civilization, and promote the coordinated development of all links and aspects of the modernization drive.

A "moderately prosperous society in all respects" covers the widest scope of population, and is a well-off society that benefits all the people. The difficulty of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects lies mainly in the field of people's livelihood. we should stick to the bottom line, highlight key points, improve the systems, guide expectations, create fair opportunities, and ensure people's basic livelihood. The most prominent deficiency in poverty alleviation lies in rural areas, and people there getting rid of poverty is the basic symbol of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. In addition, in view of the specific difficulties of different groups of people, it is necessary to help them solve their specific problems, such as ensuring the basic livelihood of the urban population with minimum living standard guarantee, strengthening old-age care and medical care for the elderly, and providing basic public services to migrant workers, finding a place to live for the college graduates, and providing training for urban registered unemployed people, and so on.

A "moderately prosperous society in all respects" covers the widest scope of areas, and means a well-off society in both urban and rural areas. Narrowing the development gap between urban and rural areas is an important task for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. We should not only narrow the gap between the total GDP and growth rates in different areas, but also narrow the gaps between residents' income, infrastructure access, basic public services access, people's living standards and so on. For narrowing the gaps, we cannot break away from the regional reality and must take everything into consideration, because different regions have different main functions, for instance, Qinghai and Tibet are key ecological functional areas, so industrial development cannot be blindly carried out there for poverty alleviation. It is just out of a "whole country" perspective that the CPC Central Committee has put forward the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, the construction of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area, the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta, and the implementation of the strategy of rural revitalization.

五、讲好扶贫故事:中国智慧和中国方案

2020年,中国的目标是全面建成小康社会,完成现行标准下农村贫困人口实现脱贫、贫困县全部摘帽、解决区域性整体贫困的任务,这将是人类历史上首次彻底消除绝对贫困,将是人类减贫史上的一大奇迹。中国脱贫攻坚具有独特性,走的是与一条与以往一切发达国家完全不同的道路;中国脱贫攻坚又具有世界性意义,中国是全球最早实现联合国千年发展目标中减贫目标的发展中国家,对全球减贫的贡献率超过70%。在脱贫攻坚的决胜收官之年,必须下大力气讲好在以习近平同志为核心的党中央带领下中国摆脱贫困的故事,消除质疑、建立认同,培育正向、健康,为世界人民读得懂、能接受、可借鉴的扶贫话语体系。

构建中国扶贫话语体系,一要梳理好中国扶贫事业的理论、实践和制度成果,从中国减贫事业中提炼扶贫话语的精神内核,阐明中国贫困治理的经验和内生动力;二要用好对外传播的平台和方法,探索国际社会认可的表述形式,用国际社会易理解、易认同、易传播的话语表述中国扶贫故事,引导国际社会正向理解;三要善于运用国内视角,讲述真实、生动、具有乡土气息的扶贫故事,提升扶贫话语“讲出去”的自信,培育更多扶贫故事讲述者;四要积极拓展国外视角,加大对国际流行话语体系的研究力度,捕捉和跟随其趋势,打破中国扶贫故事的认知和传播壁垒,矫正国际传播中的片面认知。

在当前复杂的国际形势下,全球同时面临疫情防控和本国发展的双重考验。在全面建成小康社会、打赢精准脱贫攻坚战、实现“十三五”规划的关键之年,坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,在国际舆论舞台上讲好中国扶贫故事,传播中国声音,运用话语的力量夺取国际发展的主动权至关重要。讲好中国扶贫故事,既有助于传播中国智慧、展示中国方案,更是对中国特色社会主义道路和制度合理性的有力证明。全面建成小康社会,要在说中做、做中说,推动减贫事业与构建扶贫话语体系齐头并进共同发力,让说与做、言与行都统一在每一个中国扶贫故事中,自信满满、声音洪亮地向世界发出中国声音。

5. Tell a Good Story of Poverty Alleviation: Chinese Wisdom and Chinese Plan

In 2020, China's goal is to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects, accomplishing the task of lifting rural poor people out of poverty, removing the names of the counties in the poverty alleviation list, and solving the problem of overall regional poverty under the current standards. This will be the first time in human history that absolute poverty has been completely eradicated. It will be a great miracle in the history of human poverty reduction. China's poverty alleviation work is unique and follows a completely different path from all previous developed countries and it is of worldwide significance. China is the first developing country in the world to achieve the poverty reduction goals of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, contributing more than 70% of global poverty reduction. At the final year for securing a decisive victory against poverty, great efforts must be made to tell the story of China getting rid of poverty under the leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core, to eliminate doubts, arouse resonance, and cultivate a positive and healthy poverty alleviation discourse system that can be understood and accepted by the people of the world.

In order to cultivate China's poverty alleviation discourse system, first, we should sort out the theoretical, practical and institutional achievements of China's poverty alleviation cause, refine the spiritual core of poverty alleviation discourse, and clarify the experience and endogenous driving force of China's poverty management. Second, we should make good use of the platforms and methods of external communication to explore forms of expression recognized by the international community, and tell China's poverty alleviation stories in words that are easy to understand, resonate and spread by the international community, so as to guide the international community to have a positive understanding. Third, we should be good at using domestic perspectives to tell real, vivid and local stories about poverty alleviation, enhance the self-confidence of "speaking out" about poverty alleviation work, and cultivate more poverty alleviation storytellers. Fourth, we should actively expand our foreign perspective, strengthen the research on the popular international discourse system, capture and follow its trend, break the cognitive and communication barriers to China's poverty alleviation stories, and correct the one-sided cognition in international communication.

In the current complex international situation, the world is facing the double tests of pandemic control and domestic development at the same time. In the critical year of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, of winning the battle to get rid of poverty, and of realizing the 13th Five-year Plan, it is important for us to persist in telling the story of China's poverty alleviation on the stage of international public opinion under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. It is important to spread China's voice and use the power of words to seize the initiative of international development. Telling a good story of poverty alleviation in China will not only help spread Chinese wisdom and demonstrate China's plan, but also prove the rationality of the road and system of socialism with Chinese characteristics. In order to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects, we should do and tell, tell and do, promoting the cause of poverty reduction as well as building a discourse system. We should ensure that words and deeds are unified in every story of China's poverty alleviation. Full of confidence, we will speak out to the world.

小结

通过学习《习近平谈治国理政》第三卷第五篇专题,我们不难发现,习近平对脱贫目标、如何脱贫、脱贫标准、脱贫要求、讲好扶贫故事等都做了高度凝练和精准概括,仅这一个专题就如此内涵丰富、思想深邃。

《习近平谈治国理政》第三卷逻辑严密、结构科学、系统完整,兼具原创性、时代性、指导性,是全面系统反映习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想最新发展成果的权威著作。我们要认真学习这部著作,注重引申学、系统学、全面学,在学习中深化思考,在认识中拓展知识,在行动中用科学理论指导实践,深刻领会《习近平谈治国理政》第三卷体现的习近平作为大党大国领袖特有的强大真理力量和人格力量,彰显的习近平高尚的为民情怀和宽广的世界胸怀。

Summary

By studying the fifth topic of the third volume of Xi Jinping: The Governance of China, it is not difficult for us to find that Xi Jinping has made a highly concise and accurate summary of the goals, approaches, standards and requirements for getting rid of poverty and telling the story of poverty alleviation effectively, and so on. This topic alone is so rich in connotation and profound in thought. 

The third volume of Xi Jinping: The Governance of China boasts strict logic, scientific structure, complete system, and originality. It is updated and instructive, being an authoritative work that fully and systematically reflects the latest development achievements of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. We should study this work conscientiously, systematically, and comprehensively, deriving from it the solutions to our practical problems. We should deepen our thinking while studying, expand our knowledge while understanding, guiding our practice with scientific theory. We should have a deep understanding of what reflected in the book as Xi Jinping's power of truth and strength of personality as a leader of a major party, and his noble compassion for the people and a broad world mindset.

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