多语种党政文献简写本及专家解读文库

中英对照:“全过程民主”:运作形态与实现机制

2021-01-04多语种党政文献简写本及专家解读文库

“全过程民主”:运作形态与实现机制

——《习近平谈治国理政》第三卷学习思考

复旦大学国际关系与公共事务学院教授、博士生导师 唐亚林

"Whole-process Democracy": Operational Form and Implementation Mechanism

-- Reflection on the Study of Xi Jinping: The Governance of China (Volume III) 

Tang Yalin, professor and doctoral supervisor, School of International Relations & Public Affairs, Fudan University

中共十九大把习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想确立为中国共产党必须长期坚持的指导思想并写入党章,十三届全国人大一次会议把这一重要思想载入宪法,实现了党和国家指导思想的与时俱进和重大创新。习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想是新时代中国共产党的思想旗帜,是国家政治生活和社会生活的根本指针,是当代中国马克思主义、21世纪马克思主义,为实现中华民族伟大复兴提供了行动指南,为推动构建人类命运共同体贡献了智慧方案。《习近平谈治国理政(第三卷)》全书围绕中国共产党为什么能、马克思主义为什么行、中国特色社会主义为什么好三大根本性问题,对新时代中国特色社会主义的发展格局、发展战略与发展道路等进行了全面深入、系统完备、前瞻长远的论述和部署。其中,以人民民主为发展形态的中国式民主,日益展现其“全过程民主”的实质。

At the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era was established as a guiding ideology that the CPC must adhere to for a long time and written into the CPC Constitution. At the first session of the 13th National People's Congress, this important ideology was incorporated into the Constitution of China. It was a move with the times and a significant innovation in the guiding ideology of the Party and the country. Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era is the ideological banner of the CPC, the fundamental guideline to China’s political life and social life, and Marxism in contemporary China and the 21st century, which provides guidance for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and a smart solution to promote the building of a community with a shared future for mankind. Xi Jinping: The Governance of China (Volume III) focuses on three fundamental questions of why the CPC works in China, why the Marxism works in China and why the socialism with Chinese characteristics works in China, expounding systematically on the forward-looking deployment of development pattern, strategy and path of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. Among them, the Chinese democracy, with people's democracy as its development form, is increasingly showing its essence of "whole-process democracy".

2019年11月2日下午,习近平到上海市长宁区虹桥街道古北市民中心考察调研。在听取社区开通社情民意直通车、服务基层群众参与立法工作等情况介绍,并同参加立法意见征询的社区居民代表交流时,习近平强调,“我们走的是一条中国特色社会主义政治发展道路,人民民主是一种全过程的民主,所有的重大立法决策都是依照程序、经过民主酝酿,通过科学决策、民主决策产生的。希望你们再接再厉,为发展中国特色社会主义民主继续作贡献。”

On the afternoon of November 2, 2019, Xi visited Gubei Civic Center of Hongqiao in Changning District, Shanghai. When he exchanged ideas with the community resident representatives participating in the legislative survey and debriefed on the progress made in Direct Public Opinion and supports for the community-level participation in legislative work, Xi Jinping stressed that "We are marching on a political development road of socialism with Chinese characteristics, our people’s democracy is a whole-process democracy, and all major legislation decisions have been made in accordance with the procedures and through democratic brewing in a scientific and democratic manner. I hope you will make persistent efforts and continue to make contributions to the development of socialist democracy with Chinese characteristics."

在坚持人民民主对公权力进行监督制约与有效行使的条件下,思考“全过程民主”对人民民主形式的丰富、人民民主绩效的提升以及人民民主质量的展现等重大理论与实践问题,进一步深化对人民民主的运作形态与实现机制的认识,探索人民民主的制度化与绩效化路径,是发展社会主义民主政治、走中国特色社会主义政治发展道路的题中之义。

On the basis of checks and oversight over public power by people’s democracy and its effective exercise, it is meaningful to reflect on the important theoretical and practical questions like how the "whole-process democracy" promotes diversified forms, enhances performance and displays the quality of people's democracy, in an attempt to achieve in-depth understanding of operational form and implementation mechanism of people's democracy, and explore ways to institutionalize and measure performance of people's democracy for the development of China’s socialist democracy and socialism with Chinese characteristics. 

当代中国的公权力监督制约与有效行使之路,一方面表现为中国共产党坚持人民主体地位,通过科学决策与民主决策的方式,凝聚广大人民意志,将最广大人民的利益作为党和国家最高政治原则,将人民美好幸福生活作为党和国家中心任务的制定基点,充分展现主权在民、执政为民的宗旨;一方面表现为中国共产党坚持和完善民主集中制,通过依法治国与依规治党的方式,积极建立和完善公权力在现实政治运作中的三大表现形态——用人权、治事权与财政权——的监督制约制度与机制体系;再一方面,以人民需求为基点,以透明参与为动力,以理性共识为指引,以纠偏纠错为方式,通过创建“全过程民主”的回应式民主、参与式民主、协商式民主与监督式民主的四大运作形态与精准识别机制、精致发展机制、精明推进机制、精敏发现机制四大实现机制,创造人民依法、主动、有效参与国家事务和社会事务管理的制度形态与机制体系,拓展民主实现方式,提升民主实践绩效,提升民主发展的质量,开创中国特色社会主义民主发展之路。

Checks and oversight over public power and effective exercise of people’s democracy in contemporary China can be manifested by the following three aspects: on the one hand, the Party maintains the principal status of the people, gathers the willingness of the people by the scientific and democratic decision-making process, places the majority of people's interests as the highest political principle of the Party and the country, and identifies the central tasks of the Party and the country based on making people live a happy life. The endeavors fully demonstrate that the mission of the Party is to reside sovereignty in the people and exercise power for the people. On the other hand, the Party adheres to and improves the democratic centralism, and actively establishes and refines the oversight and check system over the three forms of public power in realpolitik -- personnel power, administrative power and financial power -- through law-based governance of the country and rule-based governance over the Party. Third, the Party, based on people's demand, empowered by transparent participation, guided by rational consensus, and taking means of error correction and deviation rectification, embarks on a road to develop socialist democracy with Chinese characteristics through establishing four operational forms of "whole-process democracy", namely responsive democracy, participatory democracy, consultative democracy and supervisory democracy, and four implementation mechanisms, namely accurate identification, sophisticated development, smart propulsion, and sensible detection, creating institutions and mechanisms that the people proactively and effectively participate in the management of state and social affairs according to law, and expanding ways to implement democracy, promote democracy performance, and improve the quality of democratic development. 

一、回应式民主:以人民需求为基点,创建“全过程民主”的精准识别机制

不管居住在地球上的哪一个角落,人类追求美好幸福生活的初心是始终如一的,这是民生的内核所在,也是“最大的人权”。

民主与民生是天然地联系在一起的。民主为民生的发展提供了一种表达多样化需求与公正分配公共利益的制度框架,而民生为民主的发展奠定了一种可持续化推进的动力与人心基础。因国家与社会发展的阶段性特征、地区发展与行业发展的差距性特征、人群能力发展与阶层地位的差异性特征等多重因素的相互叠加与彼此催化,导致社会、地区、人群、代际之间存在明显的发展差距,甚至成为社会贫富分化的根源。

有鉴于此,以回应人民需求为基点,以精准识别机制为核心,通过建立表达机制、识别机制、整合机制、转化机制等链式机制体系,形成回应式民主运作形态,是创建“全过程民主”的民生需求导向价值的基础,也是将人民民主落到实处的关键。

人民需求既包括满足人身需求的物质性需求,又包括满足人心需求的精神性需求,还包括基于共同体而生的对家国和世界认知与认同的文化情怀。而且,在物质性需求与精神性需求在不断得到满足和提升的过程中,基于地域共同体而生的家国情怀也会与日俱增,成为一种打上独特地域特色、共同体文化烙印的标识。

中共十九大报告从中国特色社会主义进入新时代,中国社会主要矛盾发生了新的转化视角,提出了建立回应式民主运作形态的新要求,即“人民美好生活需求日益广泛,不仅对物质文化生活提出了更高要求,而且在民主、法治、公平、正义、安全、环境等方面的要求日益增长”。同时,中共十九大报告还提出了建立回应性民主运作形态的民生需求基础,即“必须多谋民生之利、多解民生之忧,在发展中补齐民生短板,促进社会公平正义,在幼有所育、学有所教、劳有所得、病有所医、老有所养、住有所居、弱有所扶上不断取得新进展,深入开展脱贫攻坚,保证全体人民在共建共享发展中有很多获得感,不断促进人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕”的新要求与新目标。

为此,从回应性民主运作形态视角看“全过程民主”的创新机制,一是需要建立倾听群众呼声、反映群众愿望的渠道、平台与载体,让群众的多元化需求得到畅通的表达。当前,各地各部门在出台重大法律、重大规划、重大政策、重大项目等之前,所召开的群众意见听取会、专家座谈会和所实行的立法联系点制度、网站意见征求征询制度等,就是这种回应性民主运作形态的具体形式。二是需要建立集需求表达、需求识别、需求整合、需求转化于一体的科学与民主决策机制,尤其是建立在社会转型时期遭遇各种困难的弱势群体的需求听取与帮扶机制,将民众的现阶段需求目标与国家和社会的长远发展目标有机地对接起来。其中,最为关键的是建立弱势困难群体的生产与生活需求调查与评价制度,将底层群众的实际需求纳入公共政策制定的范畴。三是需要建立广覆盖、普惠型、高绩效的,并与经济社会发展水平保持同步提升的公共服务体系与公共服务制度框架,以动态性与体系性的获得感、幸福感和安全感不断满足人民群众日益增长的美好生活需要。

I. Responsive democracy: Based on the needs of the people, setting up a precise identification mechanism of "whole-process democracy"

No matter where we live on the earth, our original aspiration for a better and happier life is consistent. This is the core of people's livelihood and the "most important human right".

Democracy and people's livelihood are naturally connected. Democracy provides an institutional framework for the development of people's livelihood by ensuring manifestation of their diversified demands and pushing forward a fair distribution of public interests, while people's livelihood provides a sustainable driving force and lays a popular foundation for the development of democracy. However, national and social development has periodic features, regional and industrial development presents disparities, and population capacity development and class status are characterized by differences. The cross-overlapping and interaction of such various factors lead to obvious development gaps between and among different societies, regions, populations, and generations, and even become root of the gap between rich and poor in society.

In view of this, as one of the democracy operational forms, responsive democracy should be developed based on responding to the people's demand through establishing chain mechanisms of communication, identification, integration, and transformation with precise identification mechanism as the core. This endeavor lays foundation of the value oriented by people’s livelihood demand for the building of “whole-process democracy”, and is the key to implementing people’s democracy.

People's needs include both the material demand and the spiritual demand, as well as the cultural identification based on the community to be recognized by their households, countries and the world. In addition, with their material and spiritual needs being gradually satisfied and improved, their need of identification by their households and countries relying on the regional community will also grow day by day, which is an icon with unique regional characteristics and the brand of community culture.

The report of the 19th National Congress states that “The needs to be met for the people to live better lives are increasingly broad. Not only have their material and cultural needs grown; their demands for democracy, rule of law, fairness and justice, security, and a better environment are increasing.” It puts forward the new requirement to establish the responsive democracy from the perspectives of China entering into a new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics and new transformations of China’s social principal contradictions. At the same time, it also defines the people’s livelihood basis for establishing the responsive democracy, just as the new requirement and new objective it proposes that “We must do more to improve the lives and address the concerns of the people, and use development to strengthen areas of weakness and promote social fairness and justice. We should make steady progress in ensuring people’s access to childcare, education, employment, medical services, elderly care, housing, and social assistance. We will intensify poverty alleviation, see that all our people have a greater sense of fulfillment as they contribute to and gain from development, and continue to promote well-rounded human development and common prosperity for everyone.” 

Therefore, in terms of responsive democracy, the innovative mechanism of "whole-process democracy" should be formed by carrying out the following three aspects of work. Firstly, communication channels, platforms and media should be built for listening to voices of common people and reflecting their wishes, so that their diversified demands can be conveyed smoothly. At present, public opinion hearings and expert symposiums convened before the promulgation of major laws, major plans, major policies and major projects, as well as the system of legislative contact points and the system of soliciting opinions on websites are all the specific forms of responsive democracy. Secondly, an integrated scientific and democratic decision-making mechanism should be set up to facilitate people’s demand being communicated, identified, integrated, and transformed. The mechanism of listening to demand of and assisting vulnerable groups especially should be established in case that they encounter various difficulties during the period of social transformation, which can effectively combine people’s current needs with the long-term development goals of the country and the society. Among them, the most critical task is to establish a survey and evaluation system for the production and living needs of the disadvantaged groups, and bring the actual needs of the people at grass-root level into the scope of public policy making. Thirdly, it is necessary to establish a public service system and institutional framework with broad coverage, inclusive and high performance, and keep pace with the level of economic and social development, so as to constantly meet the people's growing needs for a better life and let them have a dynamic and systematic sense of fulfillment, happiness and security.

二、参与式民主:以透明参与为动力,创建“全过程民主”的精致发展机制

现代生活中,公民参与国家政治和社会生活的方式有多种多样,但展现的实质都是一样的,即既体现民主的价值,又体现民主的权利,还体现民主的性质。

“民主是国家形式,是国家形态的一种。因此,它同任何国家一样,也是有组织有系统地对人们使用暴力,这是一方面。”在这里,列宁揭示了民主的阶级属性问题,提出了人类社会民主制度的多样性发展问题,指出了存在着与资产阶级民主相对立并最终将其超越的无产阶级民主的发展问题。作为国家层面的民主,既需要与公民的个体平等权利紧密相连,将其转化为一种体现在民众日常生活实践中可以看得见、行使得着的民主权利,又需要通过民主权利在日常生活实践中的全过程与全方位展开,将民主的形式、民主的绩效、民主的质量与民主的价值四者有机地统一起来,进而全方位展示民主的性质、深度、广度与可持续度。因此,列宁在强调了民主作为国家形式的一面的同时,还进一步强调了民主作为公民权利的另一面,“但另一方面,民主意味着在形式上承认公民一律平等,承认大家都有决定国家制度和管理国家的平等权利。”

在现代西方资本主义国家,通过制度设计来体现参与式民主的权利,主要有两条路径:一是竞争性选举下的公开投票,以及国家重大法律与政策的全民公投,二是不同社区形态里关于共同体生活的公共参与问题,且通常由各种各样的非政府组织进行操盘和运作。前者表现为国家层面的民主形态,后者表现为社会层面的民主形态。除此之外,就缺少真正以公共利益为导向的更为广泛与更为精致的公民参与公共政策的制度与机制设计。

更为关键的是,这种国家层面的选举民主或者公投式参与,基本展现了党派与资本利益的结合,或者政客为了特定利益而操纵民意的民粹主义式投票狂欢,其结果不仅绑架和偏离了公共利益,而且给国家和社会的统一与共荣发展遗埋下了无穷的冲突与震荡隐患。前者鲜明地体现在党派利益超越国家利益的美国总统大选之中,后者鲜明地体现在英国的政客操纵政局、“甩锅”民众的“脱欧公投”之上。

中国的参与式民主同样表现为国家层面与社会层面两大民主形态,但其运行机理却迥然不同:一是不以多党竞争的公开选举为皈依,而是以人民代表大会制度和中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度两大制度形态为依托,以中国共产党没有自己的私利而以中国人民和中华民族利益为最高价值,通过民主选举、民主协商、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督五大民主运作形式,体现依法有序、多层次多领域多渠道对话协商、决策执行监督一体化、多方合力推进的特点。

二是不以形式参与共同体生活为追求,而是以透明参与为动力,以真正体现公民的知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权四大权利为核心,通过以村民自治与居民自治为核心的城乡社区基层群众自治制度,以职工代表大会为基本形式的企事业民主管理制度,以各类重大法律、重大规划、重大决策、重大项目为主的立法联系点制度、(网络)意见征求征询会、专家座谈会、听证会、恳谈会、评议会、议事会等会议制度三大基层直接民主形态,广泛实行群众自我管理、自我服务、自我教育、自我监督,创建“全过程民主”的精致发展机制,进而把国家层面的民主形态和社会层面的民主形态有机结合,将民主转化为一种日常生活方式,产生看得见、摸得着,常参与、见实效,广覆盖、机制化的治理绩效。

当然,我们也要看到,虽然中国以透明参与为动力,在国家层面和社会层面均建立了在中国共产党全面领导制度这一根本制度下,以两大制度形态、三大基层直接民主形态、四大权利、五大民主运行形式为核心的推进“全过程民主”的精致发展机制,但广大人民对于民主作为意见表达的参与权利、作为精神生活的可欲价值、作为生命质量的生活方式、作为展现人的自由发展程度的管理形态这四者的有机统一和全面落实,仍有巨大的期盼和很大的改进空间。

II. Participatory democracy: To create a sophisticated development mechanism of "whole-process democracy" driven by transparent participation

In modern life, there are various ways for citizens to participate in national politics and social life, but there is no difference in the essence, both reflect the value, the rights, and the nature of democracy.

"Democracy is a form of the state, one of its varieties. Consequently, like every state, it represents on the one hand, the organized, systematic use of force against persons;" Here, Lenin reveals the class attribute of democracy, puts forward the diversified development of democracy in human society, and points out the possible development of proletarian democracy, opposite to bourgeois democracy, will finally surpass it. At the national level, it is necessary to link democracy closely with individual right of equality of the citizen, and turn it into a kind of democratic right that common people can learn and exercise in their daily life. In addition, it is necessary to systematically integrate the form, performance, quality and value of democracy for further showcasing its nature, depth, breadth and sustainability in an all-around way by implementing democratic rights comprehensively in daily practice throughout the whole process. Therefore, while emphasizing one side of democracy as a form of the state, Lenin further emphasized the other side of democracy as civil rights, saying that "but, on the other hand, it signifies the formal recognition of equality of citizens, the equal right of all to determine the structure of, and to administer, the state."

Modern western capitalist countries show the right of participatory democracy by means of system design. There are mainly two paths: one is public vote in competitive elections, as well as referendum on major national laws and policies; the other one is operation of various NGOs on issues usually involving public participation in community life in different forms of community. The former presents democratic forms at the national level, while the latter at the social level. However, the only omission is a broader and more sophisticated system design of citizen participating in public-interests oriented policy.

More crucially, either the electoral democracy or referendum at national level is essentially a manifestation of interests combination of political parties and capital, or a populism ballot carnival held by politicians to manipulate public opinion for their specific interests. As a result, it is a deviation from the public interest and has the public interest kidnapped, moreover, the prosperity and unity of the state and the society have been facing the potential risk of endless conflicts and shocks. The former is clearly reflected in the US presidential election in which party interests supersede national interests, while the latter is clearly reflected in the political manipulation of British politicians who held "Brexit referendum" and tried to dodge their obligations to the British people.

Although participatory democracy in China is also manifested as two forms of democracy at both the national level and the social level, its operating mechanism is quite different. Firstly, it does not rely on open elections based on the multiparty competition, but depends upon two major institutional forms, i.e. the people's congress system and the system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC. The Communist Party of China does not pursue its own self-interest and the supreme value resides in the Chinese people and the Chinese national interests. Participatory democracy in China has been operated in an orderly manner and in accordance with law, with dialogue and consultation being carried out in multi levels, multi dimensions, and multi areas, implementation and supervision of decision-making being integrated, and synergies being formed to push forward work through five operational forms of democracy: democratic elections, consultation, decision-making, management and oversight.

Secondly, China’s participatory democracy is not prone to a ritual participation in community life, but aims to promote the community to carry out self-governance, self-service, self-education, and self-oversight in a wide scale, and develop the sophisticated development mechanism of “whole-process democracy”, then further makes combination of democratic forms in both national level and social level and transforms democracy into a way of daily life, resulting in tangible governance performance that could be seen, bewared, participated, effective, widely involved and institutionalized. This participatory democracy is empowered by transparent participation and defines the true manifestation of citizens' rights to be informed, to participate, to be heard, and to oversee as its core. The way to achieve the goal is to adopt the three direct primary-level democratic forms, including the urban and rural community-level self-governance system centering around self-management of villagers and residents, enterprise democratic management system with workers congress as its basic form, and meeting system like legislative contact point, (online) opinion solicitations, expert symposiums, hearings, talkfests, appraisal meetings and councils focusing on various major laws, plannings, decisions, and projects.

Of course, we should also understand that, although the sophisticated development mechanism of “whole-process democracy” has been promoted at both national level and social level with the empowerment of transparent participation and support of a series of core systems under the fundamental system of overall leadership of the Communist Party of China, including two major institutional forms, three direct primary-level democratic forms, four major rights and five operational forms of democracy, there is still ample room for improvement in terms of the integration and comprehensive implementation of the following four aspects that people expect greatly on democracy: a manifestation of opinion for the right to participate, a deserved pursue of spiritual life, a way of life representing life quality, and a management pattern to show the degree of people’s free development.

三、协商式民主:以理性共识为指引,创建“全过程民主”的精明推进机制

现实政治过程是一个既充分容忍多元分歧,又充分整合多方意志的意见表达与共识生成过程,而意见表达与共识生成过程,往往是通过体系化的公共政策来加以体现的。体系化的公共政策的达成,主要通过代议制的方式予以实现,即由人民选举自己的代表组成代议机关,代议机关通过谈判、协商、妥协、交换等方式,将不同地区、不同党派、不同阶层、不同群体的利益整合进体系化的公共政策“大盘子”之中,然后通过行政机关的有效执行,将其转化为满足人民需求的各类公共产品和公共服务。

当代中国的现实政治过程,总体上受到中国共产党全面领导制度框架下统一规划、决策、执行、监督与评估的规约,并在实际运作过程中通过以政党协商为主导形式的协商式民主运作形态,可以最大程度地实现以理性共识为指引,广泛凝聚各政党、各团体、各群体、各阶层的意志,找到最大公约数,画出最大同心圆,进而形成“全过程民主”的精明推进机制之目标。

对于协商式民主的地位、范畴及其内涵、制度安排、组织形式、运作方式等,中共十九大报告做了全新的战略定位:“协商民主是实现党的领导的重要方式,是我国社会主义民主政治的特有形式和独特优势。要推动协商民主广泛、多层、制度化发展,统筹推进政党协商、人大协商、政府协商、政协协商、人民团体协商、基层协商以及社会组织协商。加强协商民主制度建设,形成完整的制度程序和参与实践,保证人民在日常生活中有广泛持续深入参与的权利。”“人民政协是具有中国特色的制度安排,是社会主义协商民主的重要渠道和专门协商机构。人民政协工作要聚焦党和国家中心任务,围绕团结和民主两大主题,把协商民主贯穿政治协商、民主监督、参政议政全过程,完善协商议政内容和形式,着力增进共识、促进团结。”人民政协作为当代中国新型政党制度的制度化安排与协商民主的组织化机构,其所发挥的作用已经成为充分展现“全过程民主”精明推进机制成效的典范。

首先,充分发挥了作为政治组织的吸纳、沟通与整合作用。人民政协作为政治生活中的重要组织,不仅可以最大程度地吸纳来自不同党派、不同阶层、不同地区、不同专业领域、不同界别、不同族群的优秀人士参与到参政议政的全过程之中,而且可以通过他们的诉求表达、交流探讨和磋商会谈等方式,在各个关心的重大议题之上畅所欲言、包容分歧、达成共识,最后找到最大公约数。也就是说,更多更好的吸纳是为了更好的团结,更多更好的团结是为了更好的共识,而团结和共识是为了更好的政策出台以及有效的执行随后,进而形成一种强大的协商式民主文化心理基础。

其次,充分发挥了作为正式组织参与公共生活的庄重、友好与合力作用。之所以“政治生活中的组织因素才是至关重要的”,是因为“正式组织成为现代经济体系与政治体系活动中的主要角色,法律制度和官僚制度在当代生活中也占据了主导地位”这一基本现实。以政党协商、政协协商、人民团体协商为核心的正式组织协商活动,可以最大程度地让参与组织之人,通过严密的程序、庄重的仪式和友好的商谈等方式,充分感受到作为国家主人的神圣感和使命感,将个体的非理性情绪因素与非公共利益诉求摒弃一旁,以公共利益和国家利益为最高价值,全过程参与民主发展进程,并形成“上下齐心、同心同德、合作发展”的协商式民主发展新格局。

最后,充分提供了作为正式组织有效运作所需的资源保障条件。正式组织的有效运作,不仅需要有明确的组织目标、合理的人员机构职能设置,而且需要有充足的场所、阵地和资源。对于一些事关国计民生的重大议题,还需要深入到第一线,做充分的调查研究,才能形成符合事物性质和作出有前瞻指导意义的重大战略与决策。通过正式组织间协商,尤其是有重大议题可以协商,有正式阵地和严密程序可以协商,有尊严有良好保障条件可以协商的情况下,无论是正式组织还是参与组织之人,既可以将分散的意志与需求充分表达和整合,又可通过深入长时期的调研,提出具有重大价值的战略与策略,由此获得一种对协商式民主的高度认同与由衷运用。

此外,当代中国的协商式民主运作形态是多种多样的,除了找到最大公约数、画出最大同心圆的政党协商、政协协商、人民团体协商等外,还有诸如国家和地方层面以法律和政策为核心的人大协商、政府协商等形式,以及地方和社会层面的基层协商、社会组织协商、社区协商等形式,其共通之处都在于通过理性共识的引领,达到整合各方面意志、形成发展合力之目的。

III. Consultative democracy: Guided by rational consensus, creating a smart propulsion mechanism of "whole-process democracy"

The realpolitik usually goes through a process of opinion expression and consensus generation, which not only fully tolerates multiple differences, but also fully integrates the willingness of various parties, and the process of opinion expression and consensus generation is often reflected through institutionalized public policies. Institutionalization of public policy, mainly realized by means of representative system, that is, people vote to elect their own representatives for the establishment of representative organs that integrate interests of different regions, parties, classes, and groups into a “big plate” of institutionalized public policy through negotiation, consultation, compromise, and exchange, and then it is converted to various public products and public services meeting the needs of the people through the effective implementation of the administrative organs.

On the whole, the realpolitik process in contemporary China is stipulated within the framework of the system of overall leadership of the Communist Party of China for unified planning, decision-making, implementation, oversight and evaluation, and in actual operation it is dominated by consultative democracy through political consultation, in an effort to unite willingness of political parties, organizations, groups, and all walks of life to the most extent with the guidance of rational consensus, expand common ground and the convergence of interests, and further develop the smart propulsion mechanism of “whole-process democracy”.

The report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China made a new strategic positioning on the status, scope, connotation, institutional arrangement, organizational and operational form of the consultative democracy: "Consultative democracy is an important way of effecting Party leadership and a model and strength unique to China’s socialist democracy. We will advance extensive, multilevel, and institutionalized development of consultative democracy, and adopt a coordinated approach to promoting consultations carried out by political parties, people’s congresses, government departments, CPPCC committees, people’s organizations, communities, and social organizations. We will strengthen the institutions of consultative democracy and develop complete procedures and practices to enable the people’s broad, continuous, and intensive participation in day-to-day political activities." "The CPPCC, as a distinctively Chinese political institution, is a major channel for socialist consultative democracy, and its committees are specialist consultative bodies. The CPPCC committees should focus on the Party and the country’s key tasks. With the themes of unity and democracy in mind, they should exercise consultative democracy throughout the whole process of political consultation, democratic oversight, and participation in the deliberation and administration of state affairs; and they should improve the content and forms of consultation and deliberation to build consensus and promote unity." As an institutional arrangement of the new political party system and an organizational body of consultative democracy in contemporary China, CPPCC has played a role in setting an example of fully demonstrating the effectiveness of the smart propulsion mechanism of "whole-process democracy".

First of all, it gives full play to the role of absorption, communication and integration of a political organization. CPPCC, as an important organization in political life, not only can absorb talents to the greatest extent from different parties, classes, regions, professions, sectors, and ethnic groups for their participation in the whole process of deliberation and administration of state affairs, but also may deliberate on all major issues on the basis of their voice to carry out free and inclusive discussions and consultations, endeavor for consensus, and finally find the common ground. In other words, more and better absorption is for better unity, more and better unity is for better consensus, and unity and consensus is for better policy introduction and effective implementation, thus laying a strong psychological and cultural foundation of consultative democracy.

Secondly, it gives full play to the solemn, friendly and synergistic role of a formal organization participating in public life. The argument of "organizational factors in political life are crucial" is based on the basic reality that "formal organization has become a main part in the activities of modern economic and political system, and the legal system and bureaucracy also occupy the dominant position in contemporary life". Formal organizational consultations, which have been essentially promoted by consultations carried out by political parties, CPPCC committees, and people’s organizations, help participants fully enjoy the sacredness and sense of calling as masters of the country by rigorous procedures, solemn ceremonies and friendly discussions. In this case, participants usually place individual irrational emotional factors aside, abandon their pursuit of non-public interests, but regard interests of the public and the country as the supreme value, and participate in the democratic development throughout the whole process. In this way, the new pattern of consultative democracy development has been come into being, featuring common willingness, cooperation and development.

Finally, it provides sufficient resources to ensure the effective operation of formal organizations that requires not only clear organizational objectives and reasonable personnel and institutional functions, but also adequate space, positions and resources. For some of the major issues concerning the national economy and people's livelihood, organizations need to make adequate field investigations for developing major strategies and decisions that are in line with the nature of the matter and that have a forward-looking and guiding significance. Through negotiations, formal organizations or their participants can fully convey and integrate individual willingness and demand, as well as propose significant strategies on the basis of long-period in-depth investigation, especially when they deliberate on major issues, have formal positions, follow rigorous procedures, and have been well assured with dignity. Thus the consultative democracy has been highly acknowledged and voluntarily applied.

Moreover, operational form of the consultative democracy is varied in contemporary China. In addition to the above-mentioned consultations carried out by political parties, CPPCC committees, and people’s organizations to expand the common ground and the convergence of interests, there are other forms such as some carried out for major laws and policies by people’s congress and government departments at national and local level, and others by communities and social organizations at local and social level. All of them share a common objective to integrate willingness of all walks of life and forge a synergy for development, which is guided by the rational consensus. 

四、监督式民主:以纠错纠偏为方式,创建“全过程民主”的精敏发现机制

现代民主制度之所以被广泛推崇,最主要的原因在于通过对公权力的有效制约监督,可以最大限度地防止公权力的自身腐败和对人身自由的伤害,并通过公权力的积极有效行使,可以最大程度地促进国家和社会的繁荣与发展,其内在运行机理就在于现代民主制度内蕴着一种系统化的纠错纠偏机制。

在西式民主框架下,所谓公权力的纠错纠偏机制,主要靠议会制度、三权分立与制衡制度、司法独立制度、政党轮替制度、公开选举制度以及主要官员财产申报与公开制度、新闻媒体监督制度等核心制度设计来体现,并将每四年或五年一次的全国性选举作为民意监督议会和政府(总统)的轮换“风向标”。

虽然这套针对公权力的纠错纠偏机制看上去很系统也很严密,但其能否真正发挥对“深层国家(Deep State)”或“影子政府(Shadow Government)”的监督作用,是大可疑义的,其根本原因在于经过长期隐蔽的资助捐助、教育培养和游说交换等方式方法,能够成为各级公权力掌控者的精英群体几乎被各类资本与利益集团(财团)绑架与操纵,并通过竞争性政党的意识形态化政策体系,获得特定群体的选举基本盘支持,进而建构起了非想象中的公权力纠错纠偏机制,而是利益分赃与对抗均衡机制,其结果是事关公共利益和国家利益的整体性长远性持续性国家战略天然阙失,任何上台的政党或政府只是在碎片化政策领域内打转。所谓公权力的纠错纠偏机制,不仅要在不得不忍受四年或五年的选举周期后才能启动,而且即使启动了,也只不过是在局部领域内进行改良,恰恰看不到公意、人民与公共利益的位置与作用,更看不到一个有使命感和责任心的政党与执政集团真正以人民利益为皈依的横空出世。

中国共产党作为马克思主义使命型政党,一是没有自己的私利,只是将其致力于实现人类最终解放的长远目标贯穿于中国实现独立自主、富强繁荣的社会主义现代化建设目标的全过程,即将政党的发展目标与国家和社会的发展目标有机地统一起来;二是作为中国工人阶级的先锋队、中国人民和中华民族的先锋队,始终保持马克思主义政党的先进性纯洁性,通过先进组织的引领和先进党员的带动,为国家和社会的发展树立“主心骨”;三是遵循人类社会对公权力制约监督的内在要求,通过自我反省、比较借鉴和累积性创造,逐步建构起了与中国共产党长期执政相适应的监督式民主运作形态,其基本内容包括制度化安排、内省化提升、动态化调整与最高层救济力四大方面。

所谓制度化安排,是指中国共产党通过构建党统一领导、全面覆盖、权威高效,体现党纪和国法相统一的党和国家监督体系,强化对公权力运行的制约监督,形成中国式民主框架下对公权力的纠错纠偏机制。所谓内省化提升,是指中国共产党通过思想道德和党纪国法教育,全面加强纪律建设,用严明的纪律管全党治全党,并用自我革命的精神,要求全党“坚持理想信念,加强党性修养,从严管党治党,严肃党内政治生活,坚持经常性教育和集中教育相结合,勇于开展批评和自我批评,加强党内监督,接受人民监督,不断纯洁党的思想、纯洁党的组织、纯洁党的作风、纯洁党的肌体”,让党员、干部知敬畏、存戒惧、守底线,习惯在受监督和约束的环境下工作生活。所谓动态化调整,是指中国共产党根据公权力在现实生活中的运行特点、党和国家在一段时期内的中心工作以及人民群众反映强烈的问题等实际情况,综合运用标本兼治、高压反腐与防微杜渐相结合、政治巡视与专项巡视相呼应、巡视巡察与监督监察相联动、自我监督和群众监督相配合等方式,形成把权力关进制度的笼子的精敏发现与有效运行机制体系。所谓最高层救济力,是指以党中央为坚强领导集体的中国共产党,拥有一支具有高度职业性、高度革命性、高度组织性、高度自觉性、高度纪律性、高度纯洁性、高度责任性、高度权威性、高度团结性、高度稳定性的马克思主义政治家集团这一领导力量,在复杂的国际国内斗争中,始终坚持集体领导与分工负责制和民主集中制,不仅具备驾驭各种复杂局势、做出重大前瞻战略、引领改革治理发展、保持大局稳定的高超能力,而且始终能够审时度势,不断强化自我学习、自我对标、自我净化、自我革命的能力,充分运用“自上而下的组织监督和政治巡视”这种基于中国共产党长期执政实践而生的战略性制度形式和自我更新动力机制,发挥党中央对全党全国全社会中心工作的领导作用,发挥党中央这个“中枢”对可能出现的问题、已经发生的问题进行预判指导、纠正救济、处置完善等作用,形成全体人民高度信任和拥护中国共产党、中国共产党高度信任和依赖全体人民,集硬实力、软实力与信心力于一体的人心政治新形态。

IV. Supervisory democracy: To create a sensible detection mechanism of "whole-process democracy" by means of error correction and deviation rectification

The popularity of modern democracy is mostly attributed to its effective checks and oversight over public power, which prevents personal freedom from being harmed by the corruption of public power to the greatest extend. In addition, with proactive and effective exercise of public power, prosperity and development of the country and the society can be achieved to the largest extent. The internal operational mechanism lies in a systematic error correction and deviation rectification inherent in modern democracy.

Under the framework of western democracy, the so-called error correction and deviation rectification mechanism of public power depends mainly on design of a series of core system including parliamentary system, separation of powers through checks and balances, independence of judicature, political party turnover, public election, property declaration and publication by principal officials, and news media supervision. National elections held every four or five years have been boasted as “signals” of parliamentary and government (presidential) turnovers being supervised by the public. 

Although the above-mentioned mechanism looks systematic and logical, it is doubtful whether it can truly oversee "Deep States" or "Shadow Governments". The root lies in that after long terms of hidden support and donation, education and cultivation, lobby and transaction, almost all elite groups possibly in charge of public power have been manipulated and kidnapped by various types of capital and interest group (consortium) that will further gain support from specific groups in elections through ideological policies upheld by relative competitive political parties. Therefore, the public power error correction and deviation rectification mechanism evolved is far from the original system design, but becomes a mechanism of benefit sharing and confrontation balancing, resulting in a natural failure of overall long-term and sustainable national strategies that related to public and national interests. Meanwhile, any political party or government in power gets only stuck in fragmented policies. The so-called error correction and deviation rectification mechanism of public power will have to be relaunched four or five years later when another election cycle starts, and even it is relaunched, there is just part modification and improvement, and nothing to do with public willingness, the people, and public interest, let alone the birth of any responsible political party and ruling group that has the sense of calling and truly endeavors to serve the interests of people. 

The Communist Party of China is a Marxist mission-oriented political party. First, it does not work for its own interests, but just integrates its commitment to the long-term goal of the ultimate liberation of mankind into the whole process of its socialist modernization construction targeting for China’s independence and prosperity, that is, integrates development goals of the Party with those of the country and the society. Second, as the vanguard of the Chinese working class, the Chinese people and the Chinese nation, it has always maintained the advanced nature and purity of the Marxist political party and, through the guidance of advanced organizations and the driving force of advanced Party members, setting up the "backbone" for the development of the country and society. Third, it follows the inherent requirement of human society in checks and oversight over public power to gradually develop operational forms of the supervisory democracy adaptive to CPC's long-term ruling by self-reflection, comparative reference, and cumulative innovations. The basic content of operational forms of the supervisory democracy includes institutional arrangement, introspective improvement, dynamic adjustment, and relief capability of the highest level.

The so-called institutionalized arrangement means that by establishing an authoritative, efficient oversight system with complete coverage under the Party's unified command, which embodies the unity of Party discipline and state laws, the CPC strengthens the checks on and oversight over the exercise of public power, and forms a mechanism for correcting errors and rectifying deviations of public power under the framework of Chinese democracy. Introspective improvement means that the Communist Party of China strengthens discipline through ideological and moral education, imposes strict management and discipline on the whole Party, and puts forward clear requirements with the courage of self-reform that the whole Party should "hold dear the Party’s ideals and convictions, strengthen self-education as a Party member, exercise strict self-management and self-governance, ensure that intraparty political activities are carried out in earnest, insist on combining regular education with intensive education, have the courage to carry out criticism and self-criticism, strengthen internal oversight, accept public oversight, and keep purifying the Party's thinking, organization, conduct, and body", and demands that Party members and officials hold discipline in awe and respect, do not cross the line, and become used to working and living under oversight and constraints. The so-called dynamic adjustment means that the Chinese Communist Party has developed a sensible and effective mechanism to ensure power being exercised in an institutional cage according to the operating characteristics of public power in the real world and in combination of actual situation in periodic key tasks of the Party and the country and issues the people are strongly concerned about. For this purpose, comprehensive ways have been taken to push forward the development such as by a combination of addressing both the symptoms and root causes of corruption, adopting a high-pressure posture in anti-corruption, and correcting problems while they are nascent; carrying out political inspection and special inspection in a complementary way; conducting coordinated disciplinary inspections and supervision; and implementing self-governance and public oversight in a cooperative manner. The so-called relief capability of the highest level refers to a new political model integrating hard power, soft power, and confidence, which has been developed on the basis of mutual trust between the Chinese people and the Chinese Communist Party. The Party is under the strong collectively leadership of the Party Central Committee, possesses a leading group of Marxist politicians with professionalism, revolutionary tempering, organization, self-consciousness, discipline, purity, accountability, authority, unity and stability at a high level. It upholds the collective leadership and division of responsibility system and democratic centralism in the fluctuation of complicated domestic and foreign struggles, which is able to not only manage all kinds of complex situation, make significant forward-looking strategy, lead the trend of reform and governance, and maintain the national security, but also size up the trend of events and enhance capability to self-learn, self-benchmark, and purify and reform itself. The Party also makes full use of the strategic system and self-renewal dynamic mechanism of top-down organizational supervision and political inspection which has been developed from the Party’s long-term ruling practice, plays the leading part of the Party Central Committee for the key tasks of the whole Party, the whole country, and the whole society, and also gives the play of the Party Central Committee to predict, guide, rectify, relieve and handle problems that lie potential and have occurred, thus making according improvements.  

结语:用全过程民主来保障和提升人民民主的性质与质量

中国式民主的本质,就是中国共产党领导的人民民主发展形态,其基本内涵可以用“一二三四五”来加以提炼:一是指中国共产党全面领导制度;二是指国家层面人民代表大会制度和中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度两大制度形态;三是指以村民自治与居民自治为核心的城乡社区基层群众自治制度,以职工代表大会为基本形式的企事业民主管理制度,以重大法律、重大规划、重大决策、重大项目为主的征求听证、议事评议、等会议制度三大基层直接民主形态;四是指公民所拥有的知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权四大权利;五是指民主选举、民主协商、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督五大民主运作形式。

人民民主发展形态的基本内涵,既包括人民民主的制度框架,又包括人民民主的运行机制,其核心是中国共产党的领导。为充分展现中国式民主的运行质量和发展性质,在人民民主“一二三四五”制度框架与运行机制的基础上,还需要紧扣着公权力的监督制约与有效行使这根主线,进一步通过创建“全过程民主”的运作形态与实现机制,首先是深化对人民民主的制度框架与运行机制的认识,形成多层次宽领域全过程的发展样态与实践模式;其次是丰富人民民主的实现方式,体现人民民主的参与感获得感,全面提升人民民主的运行质量;最后是创造出比西式民主更为多样更为有效更为灵敏的人民民主新型发展之路,确保人民民主的性质始终是建立在中国共产党的领导和引领之上,始终是建立在人民本位观的基础和价值之上,始终是建立在实现人类伟大解放的目标和任务之上。

Conclusion: To ensure the nature and enhance the quality of people's democracy with whole-process democracy 

The essence of Chinese democracy is the development form of people's democracy under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. Its basic connotation can be summed up in five aspects: first, it refers to the system of overall Party leadership; second, it refers to the two major institutional forms at national level, i.e. the people's congress system and the system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC; third, it refers to the three direct primary-level democratic forms including the urban and rural community-level self-governance system centering around self-management of villagers and residents, enterprise democratic management system with workers congress as its basic form, and meeting system of consultations, hearings, councils and appraisal meetings focusing on various major laws, major plannings, major decisions, and major projects; forth, it refers to four major citizens' rights to be informed, to participate, to be heard, and to oversee; fifth, it refers to the five operational forms of democracy, i.e. democratic elections, democratic consultation, democratic decision-making, democratic management and democratic oversight.

The basic connotation of the development form of people's democracy includes not only the institutional framework of people's democracy, but also the operating mechanism of people's democracy. Its core lies in the leadership of the Communist Party of China. To fully demonstrate the quality of Chinese democracy and the nature of its development, checks and oversight over public power and the effective exercise of it should also be attached to great importance in addition to the above-mentioned five institutional framework and operation mechanism. Furthermore, operational forms and implementation mechanism of the “whole-process democracy” should be created by the following three steps. First, to deepen understanding of the institutional framework and operation mechanism of the people's democracy to forge a multilevel and wide-range development pattern and practice model in the whole process. Second, to diversify forms of people's democracy and manifest the sense of participation and fulfillment it brings for the people to comprehensively improve the quality of people's democracy. Finally, to develop a new pattern of people's democracy that is more diversified, more effective and more sensitive than that of the western democracy to ensure that the nature of the people's democracy is always based on the leadership of the Communist Party of China, has always been built on the basis of people-centered philosophy and will always be built on the basis of the goal and task of achieving the great liberation of mankind.

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