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中英对照:坚持人民至上、生命至上的中国式抗疫

2021-01-04多语种党政文献简写本及专家解读文库

坚持人民至上、生命至上的中国式抗疫

——《习近平谈治国理政》第三卷

“脱贫攻坚篇”学习思考

(中共中央党校(国家行政学院)公共管理教研部副教授 张克)

Adhering to the Chinese-Style Anti-Epidemic Practices of People First and Life First

—Reflections upon Studying the Chapter on Poverty Alleviation Campaigns in Xi Jinping’s Governance of China (Volume III)

Zhang Ke:Associate Professor, Department of Public Administration, Party School of the Central Committee of the C.P.C. (National Academy of Governance)

“我将无我,不负人民”,这是习近平在会见意大利众议长菲科时说出的一句名言。人民在中共中央总书记、中国国家主席习近平的心中始终居于最高位置。最新出版的《习近平谈治国理政》第三卷深刻地回答了什么是以人民为中心、为什么要以人民为中心、如何做到以人民为中心等一系列重大理论和实践问题。2020年,在突如其来的新冠肺炎疫情大考中,以习近平同志为核心的中共中央始终坚持以人民为中心,不计一切代价拯救人民生命、采取有力措施保障人民生活、凝聚全体中华儿女力量共同抗疫,充分彰显了中国特色社会主义制度的显著优势。

"I am determined to devote myself to serving the Chinese people wholeheartedly" is a famous remark made by Xi Jinping when he met with Roberto Fico, President of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy. It is the people that occupy the highest position in the mind of Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee and President of the People’s Republic of China. The newly published third volume of Xi Jinping’s “Governance of China” presents in-depth answers to a series of major theoretical and practical questions, such as what is people-centered, why people-centered, and how to be people-centered. In 2020, through the unexpected ordeal of COVID-19, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, earnestly following the people-centered principle, has been saving people's lives at all costs, taking effective measures to ensure people's livelihood, and uniting all Chinese people to combat the epidemic. This fully demonstrates the significant advantages of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics.

面对这场史无前例的新冠肺炎疫情,中国共产党统筹全局、果断决策,中国人民坚定信心、同舟共济、科学防治、精准施策,打响了疫情防控的人民战争、总体战、阻击战。中国仅用两个月时间基本阻断了新冠肺炎疫情的本土传播,用三个月时间取得了武汉保卫战、湖北保卫战的决定性成果。世界卫生组织总干事谭德塞表示,中国展现的领导力和政治意愿值得其他国家学习。新冠疫情是一场全球公共卫生危机事件,中国成功构建起了阻止疫情传播的第一道防线,为全世界抗疫积累了经验、争取了时间。

In the face of this unprecedented epidemic, the Communist Party of China made well-coordinated plans and drastic decisions, and the Chinese people strengthened their confidence, helped each other to cope with the trials and tribulations, adopted science-based approaches and implemented precise policies in the prevention and control of the epidemic. A people’s battle against the epidemic was launched by mobilizing all resources and blocking the spread of the virus. In only two months, the domestic spread of COVID-19 epidemic was essentially blocked. In approximately three months, a decisive victory was secured in the battle to defend Hubei Province and its capital city of Wuhan. As WHO Director General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus pointed out, the leadership and political will displayed by China are worth learning from by other countries. The Covid-19 is a public health emergency and China has successfully established the first line of defense to prevent the spread of this epidemic, which has won time and can serve as reference for the world to fight against it.

为什么中国能在这场二战以来全球最大规模的传染病大流行中率先控制住疫情?根本上是因为中国共产党和中国政府坚持以人民为中心,将人民的生命安全和身体健康放在第一位,在疫情防控过程中践行人民至上、生命至上的理念。

Why can China be the first country to control the virus in the world's largest pandemic since World War II? Fundamentally, it is because the Communist Party of China and the Chinese government have been unswervingly putting people's interest at the center, making people's lives and health as its top priority, and practicing the concept of people first and life first in the process of epidemic prevention and control.

一、采取史无前例的全面严格管控措施

是选择人民生命安全至上,还是经济增长至上、选举至上、利益集团至上?面对突如其来的新冠肺炎疫情,这是各国都面临的一道艰难选择题。中国共产党和中国政府始终坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,以对人民负责、对生命负责的鲜明态度,准确分析疫情形势、慎重果断作出决策,全力保障人民的生命权、健康权。

2020年1月22日,中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平作出重要指示,要求立即对湖北省、武汉市人员流动和对外通道实行严格封闭的交通管控。1月23日凌晨2时许,湖北省武汉市疫情防控指挥部发布1号通告,23日10时起机场、火车站离汉通道暂时关闭。武汉,一个千万人口级别的超大城市因新冠疫情“封城”了,这在人类传染病防治历史上没有过先例。

疫情爆发后,中国政府采取了全面严格的管控措施,第一时间切断病毒传播链。对湖北省、武汉市实施最严格的封闭和交通管控,全国其他地区实行分区分级精准防控。为保障人民群众生命安全和身体健康,中国在全国范围内严控人员流动,延长春节假期,停止人员聚集性活动,决定全国企业和学校延期开工开学,迅速遏制了疫情的传播蔓延趋势,避免更多人受到感染。中国做出了明智的选择,宁可承受一段时间内经济下滑甚至短期“停摆”,也要确保人民的生命健康。

在全面严格管控措施下,中国付出巨大代价和牺牲,迅速扭转了疫情局势。用1个多月的时间初步遏制了疫情蔓延势头,用2个月左右的时间将本土每日新增病例控制在个位数以内,用3个月左右的时间取得了武汉保卫战、湖北保卫战胜利。英国权威医学期刊《柳叶刀》杂志社论对此做出评价,“中国的成功也伴随着巨大的社会和经济代价,中国必须做出艰难的决定,从而在国民健康与经济保护之间获得最佳平衡”。

1. Adopting Unprecedentedly Comprehensive and Stringent Control Measures 

Which should be the highest priority? People's life safety or economic growth, elections and interest groups? With the sudden outbreak of the Covid-19 epidemic, this difficult multiple-choice question is baffling all countries. The Communist Party of China and the Chinese government, by adhereing to the people-centered development ideology with a distinct vision of being responsible for the people and their lives, have accurately analyzed the epidemic situation, made prudent yet drastic decisions, and made unsparing efforts to protect the people's right to life and health.

On January 22, 2020, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, President of the People’s Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission issued an important instruction for immediate imposition of tight restrictions on the movement of people and outbound routes in Hubei and Wuhan. At around 2 a.m. on January 23, Wuhan City Novel Coronavirus Prevention and Control Command Center issued its No. 1 Public Notice declaring temporary closure of the city's outbound routes at its airports and railway stations from 10 a.m. on the same day. Wuhan, a mega-city with a population of tens millions was "closed" due to the epidemic, an unprecedented move in the history of human infectious disease prevention and control. 

After the outbreak, the Chinese government adopted comprehensive and strict control measures so as to cut off the chain of virus transmission at the first time. The most stringent closure and traffic control orders were imposed on Hubei Province and Wuhan City. Accurate region-specific and tiered prevention and control measures were implemented in other parts of the country. In order to protect people's lives and health, China strictly controlled the movement of people across the country, extended the Spring Festival holiday, stopped people’s gatherings, and postponed the opening of schools and business operations nationwide, thus swiftly curbing the spread of the epidemic and preventing more people from being infected. China has made a wise choice to protect the lives and health of its people at the cost of a short-term economic downturn and even a temporary shutdown.  

Through painstaking efforts and tremendous sacrifice, and after having paid a heavy price, China has succeeded in swiftly turning the situation around. In little more than a single month, the rising spread of the virus was contained; in around two months, the daily increase in domestic coronavirus cases was reduced to single digits; and in approximately three months, a decisive victory was secured in the battle to defend Hubei Province and its capital city of Wuhan.In an editorial, The Lancet, an renowned medical journal, commented, "China’s success has come with huge social and economic costs. China must make difficult decisions to achieve an optimal balance between health and economic protection. "

二、不惜一切代价全力救治患者、挽救生命

习近平指出,要不惜一切代价全力救治患者。中国发挥“全国一盘棋、集中力量办大事”的制度优势,前所未有地调集全国资源开展大规模救治,不遗漏一个感染者、不放弃每一位病患。从100多岁的老人到刚出生的婴儿,一个都不放弃。世界卫生组织对此做出评价,“中方行动速度之快、规模之大,世所罕见,展现出中国速度、中国规模、中国效率”。

湖北省和武汉市在疫情爆发初期面临医疗资源挤兑,感染患者迅速增加与传染病医院床位不足构成了一对矛盾。10天时间建成火神山医院,12天时间建成雷神山医院,中国速度为抢救治疗新冠肺炎的重症患者赢得了宝贵时间。为了实现应收尽收,最大程度阻断病毒传播,武汉市在中央指导组专家指导下创造性地将一批体育场馆、会展中心等改造了16家方舱医院,累计收治患者1.2万余人。

新冠肺炎感染者救治由医保买单、财政兜底,彰显中国特色社会主义制度的民生保障优势。中国对新冠肺炎确诊患者实施免费救治,确保患者不因费用问题影响就医。据统计截止2020年5月31日,确诊住院患者人均医疗费用达到2.3万元(人民币),其中重症患者人均治疗费用超过15万元,少数危重症患者治疗费用达到几十万元,甚至超过百万元。2020年5月,湖北省武汉市开展全员核酸检测,近千万人在10天内全部完成免费核酸检测,所需费用9个多亿由政府财政负担。

中国调动全国医疗资源和力量,全力支持湖北省和武汉市新冠肺炎的医疗救治。全国共调集346支国家医疗队、4.26万名医务人员、900多名公共卫生人员驰援湖北。全国19个省份以对口支援、以省包市的方式支援湖北省除武汉市以外16个地市。呼吸机、人工肺(ECMO)、防护服、N95口罩等医疗设备和物资源源不断发往湖北和武汉,为救治患者、挽救生命提供了有力保障。疫情发生以来,湖北省成功治愈3000余位80岁以上、7位百岁以上新冠肺炎患者。

2. Sparing No Effort to Treat Patients and Save Lives at All Costs

Xi Jinping pointed out that we must try our best to treat patients at all costs. Taking advantage of the mechanism of "ensuring a coordinated national response to make great achievements", China has mobilized great resources across the nation and conducted large-scale treatment as never before, leaving no single infected person unchecked and no single patient abandoned. From the elderly aged around 100 to the newborn babies, none of them was given up. The World Health Organization commented that "the speed and scale of China's actions are rare in the world, showing China's speed, scale and efficiency".

At the initial stage of treatment succeeding the outbreak, Hubei Province and Wuhan City faced extreme shortage on medical materials supply. The rapidly increasing number of infections was in stark constrast with the shortage of hospital beds in specialist hospitals for treating infectious diseases. Then, Huoshenshan Hospital was built in 10 days, and Leishenshan Hospital in 12 days. China's speed has won precious time for the rescue and treatment of severe cases with Covid-19. In order to get all confirmed patients hospitalized and stem the spread of the virus to the greatest extent possible, Wuhan creatively transformed a number of stadiums and exhibition centers into 16 Fangcang shelter hospitals under the guidance of the experts from the Central Steering Group, and admitted and treated over 12,000 patients in total.

Treatment expenses of the infected with Covid-19 were covered by the medical insurance with necessary subsidies from the state finance, which demonstrates the advantages of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics in guaranteeing people's livelihood. China provided free treatment for all patients diagnosed with Covid-19 to ensure that no patient was precluded from being properly treated for financial reasons. According to statistics, as of May 31, 2020, the per capita medical expenses of confirmed inpatients reached 23,000 yuan (RMB), of which the per capita treatment cost for severe inpatients exceeded 150,000 yuan, and the treatment costs for a few critical inpatients reached hundreds of thousands or even more than 1 million yuan. In May 2020, Wuhan City, Hubei Province launched an all-inclusive nucleic acid test for its population. Nearly ten millions of people completed the free test within 10 days, and the expenses of more than RMB 900 million Yuan thus incurred were covered by the government.

China has mobilized medical resources and strengths of the whole country to fully support the medical treatment of Covid-19 patients in Hubei Province and Wuhan City. A total of 346 national medical teams, 42,600 medical personnel, and more than 900 public health personnel nationwide raced against the clock to assist Wuhan. Nineteen provinces dispatched medical teams to Hubei’s 16 cities other than Wuhan by means of the pairing assistance mechanism. Medical equipment and material resources such as ventilators, artificial lungs (ECMO), protective clothing and N95 masks were continuously delivered to Hubei and Wuhan, providing a strong guarantee for treating patients and saving lives. Since the outbreak, Hubei Province has successfully cured more than 3,000 Covid-19 patients that are over 80 years old, 7 of whom are over 100 years old.

三、动员全体中华儿女共同抗击疫情

疫情爆发后,全国人民识大体、顾大局,响应号召、自我隔离,闭门不出、支持抗疫。中国人民对中国共产党和中国政府高度信任,自觉承担社会责任,外出佩戴口罩、测量体温、保持社交距离。在社区防控战场上,党员干部带头发动群众开展联防联控、群防群控,紧紧依靠人民群众构筑起与疫情斗争的钢铁防线。广大基层社区工作者、人民警察、下沉干部、志愿者、快递小哥等各行各业工作者冲锋在前、无私奉献,凝聚起抗击疫情的磅礴力量。

中国共产党充分展现出植根人民、为人民服务的本色。全国460多万个基层党组织,广泛动员群众、组织群众、凝聚群众、服务群众,筑起一座座抗击疫情的坚强堡垒。据统计,全国3900多万名党员、干部战斗在抗疫一线,1300多万名党员参加志愿服务,党员干部与人民群众共同构成了打赢疫情防控阻击战的主力军。应对疫情过程中,党领导工会、共青团、妇联等人民团体和各类社会组织广泛参与,彰显了志愿奉献、友爱互助的中国精神。

海内外中华儿女通过各种方式和渠道积极捐款和捐赠各类防疫物资,谱写了守望相助、共克时艰的抗疫篇章。一笔笔捐款、一箱箱物资,香港、澳门特别行政区同胞,台湾同胞和海外华侨华人倾力支援祖国抗疫。新冠肺炎疫情在全球急速蔓延,国家主席习近平亲自致电许多国家领导人,希望高度重视并维护好海外中国公民的身体健康和生命安全。中国政府毫无保留地同世卫组织和国际社会分享防控经验,向100多个国家和地区组织提供紧急援助,向各国出口防疫物资,积极开展国际科研交流合作,建设人类卫生健康共同体。

3. Mobilizing All Chinese People to Fight the Epidemic Together 

After the outbreak of the epidemic, the Chinese people across the country bore the overall situation in mind and properly responded to the instructions and calls. They carried out self-monitored quarantine, stayed behind closed doors and supported the fight against the epidemic. With a high degree of trust in the Communist Party of China and the Chinese government, the Chinese people consciously assumed social responsibilities, wearing masks outdoors, measuring their body temperatures regularly, and meticulously practising social distancing. On the battlefield of community prevention and control, CPC members and officials took the lead in mobilizing the residents to carry out joint and society-wide prevention and control. They relied closely on the people to build a steel defense line against the epidemic. People from all walks of life, such as grassroots community workers, police, officials dispatched to work in communities, volunteers, and couriers went all out to make selfless contributions and rallied a powerful force to combat the epidemic. 

The Communist Party of China has fully demonstrated its true nature of rooting in and serving the people. More than 4.6 million grassroots party organizations across the country have extensively mobilized, organized, rallied and served the people. Thus strong fortresses have been built to fight the epidemic. According to statistics, more than 39 million CPC members and officials across the country have performed their duties on the front line against the epidemic, and more than 13 million CPC members contributed their voluntary services. CPC members and officials together with the people constituted the main force in defeating the epidemic. Also in the process, trade unions, Communist Youth Leagues, Women's Federations and various social organizations, led by the Chinese Communist Party, participated in the fight against the epidemic extensively, demonstrating the Chinese mettle with voluntary dedication, friendship and mutual support. 

The Chinese people at home and abroad launched a high wave of fund and material donations for epidemic prevention through various ways and channels, making an anti-epidemic epic of helping each other and overcoming difficulties side by side. The fund and material donations represent the wholehearted support of compatriots in Hong Kong and Macao SARs, compatriots in Taiwan and overseas Chinese for the motherland in need to fight the epidemic. Later, given the rapid spread of Covid-19 around the world, President Xi Jinping personally called leaders of many countries, hoping for them to attach great importance to and safeguard the health and safety of overseas Chinese citizens. The Chinese government has unreservedly shared prevention and control experience with WHO and the international community, provided emergency assistance for more than 100 countries and regional organizations, exported epidemic prevention materials, proactively carried out international scientific research exchanges and cooperation, and strove to build a global shared community of health for all.

四、统筹疫情防控与经济社会发展

疫情终会过去,生活仍要继续。在武汉和湖北疫情得到控制、全国疫情总体平稳之时,中共中央作出统筹疫情防控和经济社会发展、有序复工复产的重大决策。2月23日,中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平出席统筹推进新冠肺炎疫情防控和经济社会发展工作部署会议,通过视频直接面向全国17万名干部进行动员部署,强调要在疫情防控条件下充分释放发展动能,努力实现经济社会发展目标任务。

在应对疫情过程中,中国科学研判、精准施策,始终保持社会稳定、有序运转。虽然中国采取了最严格的管控措施,但不论是在城市还是农村,总体上各类物资供应充足,水电气暖供应正常,关系国计民生的重点行业有序运转,14亿人民的基本生活得到有效保障。疫情期间社会秩序井然有序,社会治安和公共安全形势保持稳定。

中国政府制定“六稳”、“六保”政策,在全球率先启动复工复产。一季度中国经济社会发展经受住了新冠肺炎疫情带来的严峻考验,总体上展现出较强的韧性。全国规模以上工业企业平均开工率已达99%,中小企业复工率超过80%。中国政府制定了一系列减税降费政策,为企业特别是中小企业和个体工商户减负纾困。各地区各部门想尽一切办法,保就业、保民生。中国经济运行加快回归常态,经济活力正在快速释放。各地实施常态化防控前提下,有序全面开放商场、超市、宾馆、餐馆等生活场所,全国累计1.63亿学生(含幼儿园)返校复学复课。

4. Coordinating Epidemic Prevention and Control with Economic and Social Development 

The epidemic will eventually be gone, and life has to continue. When the epidemic in Wuhan and Hubei Province as a whole was put under control and the national epidemic situation became universally moderate, the CPC Central Committee made a major decision to coordinate epidemic prevention and control with economic and social development for resuming work and production in an orderly manner. On February 23, President Xi Jinping attended the meeting for coordinating epidemic prevention and control with economic and social development. Through video confererencing, he directly called on the 170,000 officials present at the event across the country to be mobilized, emphasizing the need to fully tap the potential of development momentum in the context of epidemic prevention and control to achieve the goals and fulfill the tasks set for the years’ economic and social development. 

In the process of dealing with the epidemic, China has made scientific judgments and implemented precise policies, and maintained social stability and normal functioning. Although China has adopted the strictest control measures in both urban and rural areas, the supplies of various materials are sufficient, the supplies of water, electricity and heating stay unchanged, the key industries related to the national economy and people's livelihood keep operating smoothly, and the basic livelihood of 1.4 billion people is effectively guaranteed. Through the epidemic, the society was in good order, and the public security and public safety situation remained stable.

The Chinese government has formulated the policies of "six stabilizations" and "six guarantees", taking the lead in resuming work and production across the world. In the first quarter of this year, China's economic and social development withstood the severe ordeal brought about by the epidemic, and showed strong resilience on the whole. On average, 99 percent of the enterprises of designated size across the country have resumed operation, and over 80 percent of the SMEs have resumed operations. The Chinese government has formulated a series of tax and fee reduction policies to relieve the burden of enterprises, especially SMEs and self-employed businesses. All regions and departments have tried every means to ensure employment and people's livelihood. China's economic operation is returning to normal at an accelerating rate, and its economic vitality is being rapidly unleashed. Under the premise of normalized epidemic prevention and control, shopping malls, supermarkets, hotels, restaurants and all other facilities have been opened gradually. A total of 163 million students (including children in kindergartens) across the country have returned to schools and resumed classes.

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