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中英对照:推动全面深化改革和形成全面开放新格局

2021-01-04多语种党政文献简写本及专家解读文库

推动全面深化改革和形成全面开放新格局

——《习近平谈治国理政》第三卷学习思考

中央党校(国家行政学院)教授 徐浩然

Comprehensively Further Reform and Form New Structure of All-Round Opening-Up

——Study and Reflection on the Third Volume of Xi Jinping: The Governance of China

Professor Xu Haoran Party School of the Central Committee of C.P.C (National Academy of Governance)

中共十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央以前所未有的决心和力度推进全面深化改革和提高对外开放水平,习近平亲自领导、亲自部署、亲自推动全面深化改革工作和建设更高水平开放型经济新体制,准确把握发展规律,科学总结历史经验,提出一系列具有原创性、时代性、指导性的新理念新观点新要求,构成了习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的重要组成部分。近期出版的《习近平谈治国理政》第三卷第六、第七专题的主题就是“推动全面深化改革实现新突破”和“形成全面开放新格局”,深刻阐述了中国在全面深化改革和扩大开放方面的重大举措。

Since the 18th National Congress of Communist Party of China (CPC), the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, has comprehensively deepened reform and raised the level of opening-up with unprecedented determination and strength. Xi Jinping, in person, led, deployed, and promoted comprehensively deepening of reform and a new economic system with higher level of opening-up. With accurately grasping the laws of development, and scientifically summarizing historical experience, he proposed a series of original and guiding ideas, viewpoints and requirements with characteristics of times, which constitute important part of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. The themes of the sixth and seventh topics of the recently published third volume of Xi Jinping: The Governance of China are "Further Reform" and "All-Round Opening-Up", which profoundly elaborated on China's significant measures for deepening reform and expanding opening-up in a comprehensive manner.

20世纪70、80年代,世界经济快速发展,科技进步日新月异,但当时的中国经济还很不发达,国家建设百业待兴。1978年10月,邓小平应邀访问日本。访问期间他参观了日本的钢铁、汽车和电器工厂。他在考察日产汽车公司时感慨地说:“我懂得了什么是现代化。”正是有了对世界经济发展进程了解的增加,才促使中国共产党对社会主义建设历史经验进行总结,对发展道路进行深刻思考。改革开放就这样在全党全社会逐渐形成共识,成为“大势所趋,人心所向”。

In the 1970s and 1980s, the world economy developed rapidly and science and technology progressed with each passing day. However, China's economy was still very underdeveloped at that time, and the nation's construction was awaited. In October 1978, at the invitation of Japan, Deng Xiaoping visited Japanese steel, automobile and electrical appliances factories. When visiting Nissan Motor Company, he said with emotion: “Now I understand what modernization is.” It is the increased understanding of the world economic development that prompted the CPC to summarize the historical experience of socialism building and deliberate profoundly on the development path. As a result, the whole Party and whole society have gradually reached a consensus about reform and opening-up, which is "the general trend and the will of the people" now.

一、中国实施改革开放的基本过程

1978年,中共十一届三中全会是划时代的,开启了中国改革开放和社会主义现代化建设历史新时期。40多来,中国解放思想,大胆试、大胆闯,改革从农村到城市,从试点到推广,从经济体制改革到各方面体制改革再到全面深化改革,从对内搞活到对外开放,从部分地区和领域对外开放到全方位多层次宽领域对外开放。以邓小平同志为主要代表的中国共产党人作出把党和国家工作中心转移到经济建设上来、实行改革开放的历史性决策,成功开创了中国特色社会主义。以江泽民同志为主要代表的中国共产党人,确立了社会主义市场经济体制的改革目标和基本框架,开创改革开放新局面,成功把中国特色社会主义推向21世纪。以胡锦涛同志为主要代表的中国共产党人,强调坚持以人为本、全面协调可持续发展,推进党的执政能力建设和先进性建设,成功在新的历史起点上坚持和发展了中国特色社会主义。

中共十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央以巨大的政治勇气和智慧,以一往无前的自我革命精神,确定了全面深化改革总目标,着力增强改革系统性、整体性、协同性,着力抓好重大制度创新,着力提升人民群众获得感、幸福感、安全感,以前所未有的力度推进全面深化改革,推出1600多项改革方案,啃下多少硬骨头,闯过多少急流险滩,改革呈现全面发力、多点突破、蹄疾步稳、纵深推进的局面,以一系列历史性成就和历史性变革,推动中国特色社会主义进入新时代。中共十八届三中全会开启了全面深化改革、系统整体设计推进改革的新时代,开创了中国改革开放的全新局面。

中共十九大以来,党中央在深化中共十八大以来改革成果的基础上,不失时机推进重大全局性改革,全面深化改革取得新的重大进展。继续推进改革,要把更多精力聚焦到重点难点问题上来,集中力量打攻坚战,激发制度活力,激活基层经验,激励干部作为,扎扎实实把全面深化改革推向深入。中共十九届四中全会和十八届三中全会历史逻辑一脉相承、理论逻辑相互支撑、实践逻辑环环相扣,目标指向一以贯之,重大部署接续递进。中共十九届四中全会不仅系统集成了十八届三中全会以来全面深化改革的理论成果、制度成果、实践成果,而且对新时代全面深化改革勾勒出更加清晰的顶层设计。

I. The Course of Reform and Opening-up in China

In 1978, the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, an epoch-making session, opened a new and historic period of China's reform and opening-up and socialist modernization. For more than 40 years, by mind emancipation and brave innovation, China has launched reforms from rural areas to cities, from testing pilot projects to full scale roll out. Reforms have been implemented from economic system to other areas’ systems, to deepening reforms in a comprehensive manner; from domestic economy to that of the world. And Opening-up has been carried out from some regions and areas to all-round, multi-level and wide-range opening-up. The Chinese Communists, with Comrade Deng Xiaoping as the main representative, made the historic decision to shift the work center of the Party and the country to economic development and reform and opening-up, successfully creating socialism with Chinese characteristics. The Chinese Communists, with Comrade Jiang Zemin as the main representative, who set the reform goals and basic framework of the socialist market economy system, opened a new phase of reform and opening-up, and successfully took socialism with Chinese characteristics into the 21st century. The Chinese Communists, with Comrade Hu Jintao as the main representative, who put emphasis on the people-oriented, comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development, and the improvement of the Party's governing ability and advanced nature, succeeded in upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics from a new starting point.

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has set the general goal of comprehensively deepening reforms with great political courage, wisdom and unrelenting self-revolutionary spirit, focusing on enhancing the systematic, integrated, and synergistic reforms, on great innovations of systems in every area, and on improving the people's sense of gain, happiness, and security. The CPC has comprehensively furthered reforms with unprecedented strength, and introduced more than 1,600 reform plans. It’s hard to imagine how many difficulties have been overcome. The all-round and fast, steady and deep reforms, with a series of historic achievements and changes, pushed socialism with Chinese characteristics into a new era. The Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China opened a new phase of comprehensively and systematically deepening reform and expanding opening-up.

Since the 19th CPC National Congress, on the basis of reform achievements since the 18th CPC National Congress, the CPC Central Committee has made new and significant progress in comprehensively furthering reform. To advance reforms, the CPC decided to focus on key issues, stimulate systems’ vitality, engage the grassroots, and encourage cadres to take action. The Fourth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee and the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee have the similar historical, theoretical and practical background. The goals of the two sessions are consistent, and major deployments continue to progress. The Fourth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China not only systematically integrated theories, systems and good practices of deepening overall reform since the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee, but also outlined a clearer top-level design for comprehensively furthering reform in the new era.

二、中国改革开放的宝贵经验

只有顺应历史潮流,积极应变,主动求变,才能与时代同行。“行之力则知愈进,知之深则行愈达。”改革开放以来积累的宝贵经验是中国共产党和中国人民弥足珍贵的精神财富,对新时代坚持和发展中国特色社会主义有着极为重要的指导意义,必须倍加珍惜、长期坚持,在实践中不断丰富和发展。

一是坚持中国共产党对一切工作的领导。改革开放是中国共产党在新的时代条件下带领中国人民进行的新的伟大革命。把十四亿中国人民的思想与力量统一和凝聚起来,齐心协力推进全面深化改革、发展中国特色社会主义、实现中华民族伟大复兴,没有中国共产党的坚强统一领导是不可设想的。壮阔的征程,需要领航的力量。历史证明,只有中国共产党才能领导中国,只有中国共产党才能发展中国。鸦片战争后,中华民族陷入被侮辱、被宰割的悲惨境地。“中国积弱,至今极矣。”为了改变这种状况,各种主义和思潮都进行过尝试,皆以失败告终。中国共产党一经成立,就义无反顾肩负起实现中华民族伟大复兴的历史使命。从1949年建立新中国,到改革开放大幕,再到新时代实现新飞跃,中国共产党带领人民在时代的激流中开辟出属于自己的航道,走出了一条中国特色社会主义道路。“没有中国共产党就没有新中国。”“办好中国的事情,关键在党。”“坚持和完善党的领导,是党和国家的根本所在、命脉所在。”这些结论,充分说明了坚持和加强中国共产党的全面领导的历史必然性。

二是坚持以人民为中心,不断实现人民对美好生活的向往。民之所望,改革所向。回望改革开放的壮阔历程,“人民”是贯穿始终的一条主线。改革开放以来,按照可比价格计算,中国国内生产总值年均增长约9.5%,中国人民生活从短缺走向充裕、从贫困走向小康。改革开放的成功,就在于顺应了中国人民要发展、要创新、要美好生活的历史要求。从包产到户的探索创新,到乡镇企业的异军突起,再到数字经济的蓬勃发展,改革开放在认识和实践上的每一次突破和发展,无不来自人民群众的实践和智慧。始终坚持以人民为中心,尊重人民主体地位,发挥群众首创精神,才能依靠人民推动改革,才能为了人民创造奇迹。

三是坚持马克思主义指导地位,不断推进实践基础上的理论创新。马克思主义是立党立国的根本指导思想,背离或放弃马克思主义,就会失去灵魂、迷失方向。中国特色社会主义是社会主义,不是别的什么主义。中国共产党始终坚持把马克思主义基本原理同中国的具体实际相结合,不断推进马克思主义中国化时代化大众化,推进实践基础上的理论创新,形成了邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观、习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想,实现了党的指导思想的与时俱进。这些重大理论成果,科学回答了“什么是社会主义”、“怎样建设社会主义”,“建设什么样的党”、“怎样建设党”,“实现什么样的发展”、“怎样发展”,“新时代坚持和发展什么样的中国特色社会主义”、“怎样坚持和发展中国特色社会主义”等根本性问题,贯穿着建设中国特色社会主义的共同主题,为改革开放和社会主义现代化建设指明了前进方向。

四是坚持走中国特色社会主义道路,不断坚持和发展中国特色社会主义。走自己的路,建设中国特色社会主义,是中国共产党改革开放以来的战略抉择。不走封闭僵化的老路,也不走改旗易帜的邪路。路在何方,路在脚下,在中国大地上。他人的经验,可以知晓借鉴,但无需顶礼膜拜。马克思、恩格斯确立的科学社会主义基本原则,反映了社会主义的本质要求,但社会主义的实现途径和具体道路,则要同中国实际紧密结合。建设中国特色社会主义,不是搞变通的资本主义,而是社会主义在中国的独特样式。40多年来的历史证明,走自己的路,走出了海阔天空,走出了小康富裕,走出了中国新貌。新时代改革开放再出发,就是要继续走自己的路,走与科学社会主义相贯通、与人类文明进步相融汇的路。

五是坚持完善和发展中国特色社会主义制度,不断发挥和增强中国制度优势。制度事关党和国家事业发展的根本性、全局性、稳定性、长期性。没有中国特色社会主义制度这个有力保证,就不会有改革开放在中国大地上的凯歌前行。改革开放以来,我们解放思想、实事求是,大胆地试、勇敢地改,将世人眼中一系列的“不可能”转变为“可能”、转变为实实在在的人间奇迹。中国共产党之所以能够带领人民绘就一幅波澜壮阔、气势恢宏的历史画卷,正在于始终坚持牢牢“扭住完善和发展中国特色社会主义制度这个关键”。在庆祝改革开放40周年大会上的讲话中,习近平从经济、政治、文化、社会、生态文明“五位一体”总体布局出发,明确阐述了前进道路上必须坚持的一系列基本制度。不断发挥和增强中国制度优势,首要前提就是保持定力,在坚持这些基本制度上毫不动摇。

六是坚持以发展为第一要务,不断增强中国综合国力。改革开放积累的最宝贵经验之一,是必须坚持以发展为第一要务,不断增强综合国力。40多年来,中国始终坚持以经济建设为中心,不断解放和发展社会生产力,国内生产总值由3679亿元增长到2017年的82.7万亿元,年均实际增长9.5%,远高于同期世界经济2.9%左右的年均增速。中国国内生产总值占世界生产总值的比重由改革开放之初的1.8%上升到15.2%,多年来对世界经济增长贡献率超过30%。中国货物进出口总额从206亿美元增长到超过4万亿美元,累计使用外商直接投资超过2万亿美元,对外投资总额达到1.9万亿美元。中国主要农产品产量跃居世界前列,建立了全世界最完整的现代工业体系,科技创新和重大工程捷报频传。中国基础设施建设成就显著,信息畅通,公路成网,铁路密布,高坝矗立,西气东输,南水北调,高铁飞驰,巨轮远航,飞机翱翔,天堑变通途。现在,中国是世界第二大经济体、制造业第一大国、货物贸易第一大国、商品消费第二大国、外资流入第二大国,中国外汇储备连续多年位居世界第一,中国人民在富起来、强起来的征程上迈出了决定性的步伐!

七是坚持扩大开放,不断推动共建人类命运共同体。开放带来进步、封闭必然落后,是人类社会发展的历史规律,也是当今世界这个地球村的现实写照。40多年来,中国积极把握经济全球化机遇,坚定不移扩大对外开放,充分利用国际国内两个市场两种资源加快发展,贸易大国地位日益巩固,在成为吸引全球投资热土的同时,“走出去”步伐不断加快。一是对外贸易规模大幅增长。2017年,中国货物进出口总额达到4.1万亿美元,比1978年增长197.9倍,年均增长14.5%,居世界第一位;服务进出口总额6957亿美元,比1982年增长147倍,连续4年保持世界第二位。二是吸引外资与对外投资快速发展。1979年至2017年,中国累计吸引外商直接投资达18966亿美元,是吸引外商直接投资最多的发展中国家。2017年,中国对外直接投资额(不含银行、证券、保险)1201亿美元,比2003年增长41.1倍,年均增长30.6%。三是共建“一带一路”成效显著。中共十八大以来,“一带一路”建设硕果累累。目前,100多个国家和国际组织以不同形式参与“一带一路”建设,80多个国家及国际组织同中国签署了合作协议。2017年,中国对“一带一路”沿线的59个国家直接投资额(不含银行、证券、保险)144亿美元,占同期总额的12%。

八是坚持全面从严治党,不断提高党的创造力、凝聚力、战斗力。打铁必须自身硬。改革开放以来,中国持续推进党的建设新的伟大工程,从严管党治党,党在革命性锻造中坚定走在时代前列。“胜人者有力,自胜者强。”中国共产党在领导改革开放和社会主义现代化建设伟大社会革命的同时,坚定不移推进伟大自我革命,清除一切侵蚀党的健康肌体的病毒,始终保持勃勃生机和强大战斗力。

九是坚持辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义世界观和方法论,正确处理改革发展稳定关系。中国改革开放的成功,离不开科学世界观和方法论的指导。习近平指出,必须坚持辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义世界观和方法论,正确处理改革发展稳定关系,正是因为始终坚持辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义,正确处理改革发展稳定关系,从而保证了改革进程富有成效地开展。具体来说,中国改革的方法在于:坚持加强中国共产党的领导和尊重人民首创精神相结合,创造了既有集中统一又充分调动每个人积极性和能动性的生动局面,放手让一切劳动、知识、技术、管理、资本等要素的活力竞相迸发,让一切创造社会财富的源泉充分涌流,在社会稳定有序的前提下激发了全社会的创造活力。坚持“摸着石头过河”和顶层设计相结合,在整体上有规划、有战略,在局部上能够根据实际情况进行具体问题具体分析,从而不仅让改革有明确的目标指向,而且能够让改革目标在实践中落地。坚持问题导向和目标导向相统一,这样既能够在过程中及时发现问题,又能扭住目标把改革推进到底。坚持试点先行和全面推进相促进,既鼓励大胆试、大胆闯,又坚持实事求是、善作善成,确保了改革开放行稳致远。

II. The Valuable Experience of China’s Reform and Opening-up

Only by conforming to the historical trend, actively adapting to changes, and proactively making changes can we keep pace with the times. "Practice enriches knowledge, and more knowledge leads to better practice." The valuable reform and opening-up experience is the precious spiritual wealth of the Communist Party of China and the Chinese people, and is extremely important for upholding and development of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, so it should be cherished, upheld and enriched for long term.

The first is strengthening the leadership of the Communist Party of China across the board. Reform and opening-up is a great new revolution carried out by the Chinese people with CPC as the lead in the new era. Without strong and unified leadership of the Communist Party of China, we can hardly unify and unite the thoughts and strength of the 1.4 billion Chinese people, or make concerted efforts to push forward reforms, or develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, or realize the great rejuvenation of our nation. The magnificent journey requires the power of piloting. History has proved that only the Communist Party of China can lead China and only the Communist Party of China can develop China. After the Opium War, the Chinese nation fell into a tragic situation of being insulted and slaughtered. "China has been weak for so long, and now to its extreme." In order to change this situation, various philosophies and ideological trends have tried, but they all ended in failure. Once the Communist Party of China was established, it had no hesitation in shouldering the historical mission of realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. From the founding of New China in 1949, to reform and opening-up, and to the new era, the Communist Party of China led the Chinese people to open up their own waterways in the rapids of the times and embarked on a new path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. "Without the Communist Party of China, there would be no New China." “China’s success hinges on the CPC." “Upholding and improving the leadership of the Party is the fundamental and lifeblood of the Party and the country." These conclusions fully illustrate the historical inevitability of upholding and strengthening the overall leadership of the Chinese Communist Party.

The second is adhering to the people-centered philosophy and continuously fulfilling the people's yearning for a better life. The hope of the people is the direction of reforms. Looking back at the magnificent course of reform and opening-up, "the people" is the main thread that runs through. Since the reform and opening-up, China’s GDP has grown at an average annual rate of about 9.5% based on comparable prices, and the life of the Chinese people has moved from shortage to abundance, and from poverty to well-off. The success of reform and opening-up lies in conforming to the historical requirements of the Chinese people for development, innovation, and a better life. From the exploration and innovation of contracting production to households, to the rapid emergence of township and village enterprises, to the vigorous development of the digital economy, every breakthrough of reform and opening-up comes from the practice and wisdom of the people. Only by insisting on putting the people first, respecting people’s rights as the master of the country, and giving play to the initiative of the people can we rely on the people to promote reforms and create miracles for the people.

The third is taking Marxism as guide and continuously pursue theoretical innovation based on practice. Marxism is the fundamental guiding ideology for building the Party and the country. If you deviate from or abandon Marxism, you will lose your soul and your way. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is socialism, not any other ism. The Communist Party of China has always integrated the basic principles of Marxism with China’s specific reality, and continuously promoted the localization, modernization and popularization of Marxism in China by theoretical innovation. The achievements include Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of Three Represents, The Scientific Development Concept and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. The Party’s guiding ideology advances with the times. These major theoretical achievements, with the common goals of developing socialism with Chinese characteristics, have scientifically answered some basic fundamental issues of "what is socialism", "how to build socialism", "what kind of party to build", "how to build a party", "what kind of development to pursue", "how to develop", "what kind of socialism with Chinese characteristics to uphold and develop in the new era”, and "how to do it", and point out a clear direction for the reform and opening-up and socialism modernization.

The fourth is sticking to the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics and developing it. It is the strategic choice of the CPC to take its own path and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics since reform and opening-up. Do not follow the old road of isolation and rigidity, or the evil road of changing the flag and ideology. The road is where you stand, on the land of China. The experience of others can be learned, but there is no need to worship. The basic principles of scientific socialism established by Marx and Engels reflect the essential requirements of socialism, but the ways to realize socialism must be consistent with China's reality. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is not another kind of capitalism, but the unique style of socialism in China. The history of more than 40 years has proved that the way we took led to a well-off and prosperous society, and brought a new look to China. When we set out again for reform and opening-up in the new era, we should continue to follow our own path, a path towards scientific socialism and human civilization progress.

The fifth is upholding and improving the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and constantly exerting and enhancing its advantages. The system is the foundation of the Party and the country, and it is related to the comprehensiveness, stability, and sustainability of the development. Without the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, there would be no triumphant advance of reform and opening-up. Since the reform and opening-up, we have emancipated our minds, sought truth from facts, bravely tried and changed, and transformed a series of "impossibles" into "possibles" and miracles on earth. The reason why the Chinese Communist Party is able to lead the Chinese people to make a magnificent history is that it has always adhered to improving and developing the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics. In his speech at the celebration of the 40th anniversary of reform and opening-up, Xi Jinping, from the perspective of "Five-Pronged Overall Plan", clearly stated a series of basic systems that must be adhered to. The first prerequisite for continuously exerting and enhancing the advantages of China's system is to maintain determination and keep unwavering.

The sixth is making development as the top priority and continuously improving China's comprehensive national strength. One of the most valuable experiences accumulated in reform and opening-up is that development must be the top priority and the overall national strength must be continuously enhanced. For more than 40 years, China has always insisted on focusing on economic development and continuously liberating and developing social productive forces. Its GDP has increased from 367.9 billion Yuan to 82.7 trillion Yuan in 2017, with an average annual real growth rate of 9.5%, much higher than 2.9% of the world over the same period. The proportion of China's GDP in the world's GDP has risen from 1.8% at the beginning of reform and opening-up to 15.2%, and has contributed more than 30% to the world economic growth over the years. China’s total imports and exports of goods have increased from US$20.6 billion to more than US$4 trillion. The cumulative use of foreign direct investment has exceeded US$2 trillion, and the total foreign investment has reached US$1.9 trillion. China's production of major agricultural products has leapt to the forefront of the world, and the world's most complete modern industrial system has been established, with frequently reported scientific and technological innovation and major projects. China has made remarkable achievements in infrastructure construction, such as unimpeded access to information, networked roads, densely distributed railways, high dams, west-to-east gas transmission, south-to-north water transfer, high-speed railways, ships and aircrafts, and magnificent bridges. Now, China is the world’s second largest economy, largest manufacturing country, largest trade in goods, second largest consumer of goods, and second largest inflow of foreign capital. China’s foreign exchange reserves have ranked first in the world for many years. The Chinese people have made decisive progress on the journey of becoming rich and getting stronger!

The seventh is expanding opening-up and building a community with a shared future for mankind. Openness brings progress, and closure inevitably leads to lagging behind. It is the historical law of the development of human society, and also the reality of the world today. For more than 40 years, China has actively seized the opportunity of economic globalization, unswervingly expanded its opening-up, and made full use of the resources of both international and domestic markets to accelerate its development. Its status as a major trading country has been increasingly consolidated. While becoming a hot spot for attracting global investment, its “go global” strategy keeps accelerating. First, the scale of foreign trade has grown substantially. In 2017, China’s total imports and exports of goods reached US$4.1 trillion, an increase of 197.9 times over that of 1978, with an average annual growth rate of 14.5%, ranking first in the world; total imports and exports of services reached US$695.7 billion, an increase of 147 times over 1982, maintaining the second place in the world for four consecutive years. The second is the rapid development of foreign inflows and investment abroad. From 1979 to 2017, China attracted a total of US$1.8966 billion in foreign direct investment, making it the developing country that attracted the most foreign direct investment. In 2017, China's direct investment abroad (excluding banks, securities, and insurance) was US$120.1 billion, an increase of 41.1 times over 2003, with an average annual growth rate of 30.6%. Third, the “Road and Belt” initiative has achieved remarkable results. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the "Belt and Road" has been fruitful. At present, more than 100 countries and international organizations are participating in the initiative, and more than 80 countries and international organizations have signed cooperation agreements with China. In 2017, China's direct investment (excluding banks, securities, and insurance) in 59 countries along the “Road and Belt” was US$14.4 billion, accounting for 12% of the total amount over the same period.

The eighth is exercising full and rigorous governance over the Party, and continuously improving the Party's creativity, cohesion, and capacity. “It takes a good blacksmith to make steel”. Since the reform and opening-up, China has continued to promote the great new project of Party building, and ensure strict governance over the Party. "He who conquers the world has strength;He who conquers the self has harmony." While leading the great reform and opening-up and the modernization of socialism, the Communist Party of China unswervingly promotes the great self-revolution, eliminates all viruses that erode the party, and always maintains its vigor. 

The ninth is correctly dealing with the relationship between reform, development and stability from the view of Dialectical and Historical Materialism. The success of China's reform and opening-up is based on the scientific worldview and methodology. Xi Jinping pointed out that we must adhere to the dialectical materialism and historical materialism, and correctly handle the relationship between reform, development and stability, which is the reason for the success of the reform. Specifically, the method of China's reform lies in: insisting on the integrity of the leadership of the Communist Party of China and respect for the people’s initiative, and creating a vivid situation that not only centralizes and unifies but also fully mobilizes everyone’s enthusiasm and initiative, and let free all the vital factors, such as labor, knowledge, technology, management, and capital to stimulate the whole society’s creativity. Bravely try with top-level design as guidance. Make plans and strategies on the whole, while provide specific solutions to specific problems, so that the reform can be implemented with clear goal. Unify the problem-oriented and goal-oriented methods to discover problems in time and to bolster the reform. Support the pilot programs, and encourage bold trial, while insist on seeking truth from facts, ensuring the stability and long-term nature of reform and opening-up.

三、改革实现新突破和形成全面开放新格局

改革开放是决定当代中国命运的关键抉择,是当代中国发展进步的活力之源,是党和人民事业大踏步赶上时代的重要法宝,是坚持和发展中国特色社会主义、实现中华民族伟大复兴的必由之路。当前,中国改革发展正处于深刻变化之中,外部不确定不稳定因素增多,改革发展面临许多新情况新问题。面向未来,中国将大力推动改革实现新突破,形成全面开放新格局。

首先,要以改革开放的眼光看待改革开放,充分认识新形势下改革开放的时代性、体系性、全局性问题,在更高起点、更高层次、更高目标上推进改革开放。可以说,改革是由问题倒逼而产生,又在不断解决问题中得以深化。善于用发展的眼光看待问题、用发展的办法解决问题,才符合辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义。当前出现的矛盾和问题,大多是改革不够到位、对外开放水平不够高造成的。可以说,这些问题是改革开放还不够深入的反映,说到底是发展中的问题、成长中的烦恼,必须通过深化改革开放的方式加以解决。

其次,中国特色社会主义进入新时代,开放的大门只会越开越大。改革开放是在经济全球化的大背景下进行的,把改革开放的旗帜举得更高更稳,就要把握经济全球化的时代大势,在更深层次、更宽领域、以更大力度推进全方位高水平开放。历史大潮浩荡前行。经济全球化是不可逆转的历史大势。历史已经证明,只有坚持开放合作才能获得更多发展机遇和更大发展空间,自我封闭只会失去世界,最终也会失去自己。开放已经成为当代中国的鲜明标识。过去中国经济发展成就是在开放条件下取得的,未来中国经济实现高质量发展也必须在更加开放的条件下进行。习近平多次向世界宣示:“中国开放的大门不会关闭,只会越开越大。”中国将坚定不移奉行互利共赢的开放战略,实行高水平的贸易和投资自由化便利化政策,推动形成陆海内外联动、东西双向互济的开放格局。海南全岛建设自由贸易试验区,正是中国推动形成对外开放新格局的积极作为。中国欢迎全世界投资者到海南投资兴业,积极参与海南自由贸易港建设,共享中国发展机遇、共享中国改革成果。

再次,坚持创新是第一动力,以创新精神推动改革开放。“入之愈深,其进愈难。”今天,实现中华民族伟大复兴进入关键阶段,景色更加壮阔,时间更加紧迫,“不创新就要落后,创新慢了也要落后”。改革开放来到了新的关口,没有经验可循,没有模式可依,简单延续和模仿前期改革、修补完善已有改革成果,都难以实现大进步,必须向着陌生地带、高难领域发起新的改革攻坚。一切社会变迁和历史变革的终极原因,“应当到生产方式和交换方式的变更中去寻找”。没有实践大创新,就不会有改革大突破,改革开放的过程,就是实践创新的过程。除了勇敢推进理论创新、实践创新、制度创新、文化创新以及各方面创新,我们别无其他选择。

大道至简,实干为要。面对世界经济格局的深刻变化,为了共同建设一个更加美好的世界,各国都应该拿出更大勇气,积极推动开放合作,实现共同发展。

III. New Breakthroughs of Reform and New Pattern of All-Round Opening-Up

Reform and opening-up is the key choice of China, the driving force for the development of China, and the trump for the course of the Party and the Chinese people. Reform and opening-up is the inevitable path to develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, and strive for the great national rejuvenation. At present, China's reform and development are undergoing profound changes, and increased external uncertainties and unstable factors pose many new challenges and new problems to our reform. In the future, China will vigorously promote reform to achieve new breakthroughs and form a new pattern of comprehensive opening-up.

First of all, promote reform and opening-up from a higher starting point with higher goals, and better understand the systematic problems in reform. Reform came from the urge to solve the problem, and has been bolstered in the process of solving the problem. Handling problems with a developmental perspective is in line with the requirement of Dialectical and Historical Materialism. Most of the current contradictions and problems are caused by insufficient reforms and openness, and can only be resolved by deepening reform and opening-up.

Second, as socialism with Chinese characteristics enters a new era, the door of opening-up will definitely open wider and wider. In the context of economic globalization, we must grasp the general trend of the era and promote high-level all-round opening-up in deeper and broader fields. Economic globalization is an irreversible historical trend. History has proven that only by adhering to opening-up and cooperation can we obtain more development opportunities. Being self-closed will only lead to loss of the world, and eventually loss of ourselves. Openness brought China economic development, and has become a distinctive symbol of China. In future, the high-quality development of China’s economy will also be based on broader opening-up. Xi Jinping has repeatedly declared to the world: "China will not close its door of opening-up, but will only open wider." China will unswervingly pursue a mutually beneficial and win-win opening strategy and implement high-level trade and investment liberalization and facilitation policies. China will form a new structure of opening-up with land and sea areas, home and abroad interaction, and east-west mutual assistance. The establishment of Hainan pilot free trade zone is an example of China to promote that structure. China welcomes investors from all over the world to invest in Hainan, participate in the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port, and share China’s development opportunities and the fruits of China’s reforms.

Moreover, take innovation as the first driving force for reform and opening-up. "The deeper you enter, the more difficult it will be to advance." Today, the great rejuvenation of the nation has entered a critical stage. "If don't innovate, you will fall behind, and if act slowly, you will also fall behind." Reform and opening-up have come to a new threshold. There is no experience to follow. Simply continuing and imitating the previous reforms, or just repairing and improving existing reform results are difficult to achieve new progress. New reforms must be launched in unfamiliar areas and difficult areas. The ultimate cause of all social and historical changes "should be found in the changes in the mode of production and exchange." Without major innovation, there will be no major reform breakthroughs. And the process of reform and opening-up is a process of practice and innovation. We have no choice but to bravely promote theoretical innovation, practical innovation, institutional innovation, cultural innovation, and innovation in all other aspects.

Great truths are always simple, and one of them is action speaks louder than words. In the face of the profound changes of the world economic structure, in order to jointly build a better world, all countries should show greater courage to promote openness and cooperation, and achieve common development.

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